This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.
John B Horowitz
— He was a coauthor of Cecil Bohanon on one article for the Tobacco Institute. —
Professor Cecil Bohanon of Ball State University had been a foundation member of the cash-for-comments academics network from 1984-85.
Professor John Horowitz was very much an incidental associate of Bohanon in supporting the tobacco industry through the surreptitious cash-for-comments network. He is included here mainly for completeness in the coverage of the network.
Horowitz and Bohanon were regular co-authors of numerous papers on different aspects of economics — but only one commissioned article for the tobacco industry appears in the tobacco archives.
The cash-for-comments economists network was set up by Professor Robert Tollison with lobbyist and consultant to the Tobacco Institute, James Savarese. It's purpose was to provide propaganda and lobbying services to the tobacco industry in all 50 US States, utilizing trusted and prominent academics at the local universities. It was:
The principle organisers included the:
- Funded and controlled by the Tobacco Institute.
- Organised and influenced by the Center for the Study of Public Choice at George Mason University, and the Public Choice Society (neo-con economists).
- Operated on a day-to-day basis through Ogilvy & Mather, and then by James Savarese & Associates a lobby firm based in Washington.
It employed only Professors of economics at well-known State universities, and secretly commissioned them to:
- Tobacco Institute staff — Peter Sparber, Susan Stuntz, Carol Hyrcaj, Fred Panzer, Jeff Ross and Calvin George.
- Economist organizers — Robert Tollison, William Shughart, Dwight Lee, Richard Wagner, Gary Anderson, Robert Ekelund, Henry Butler —
- Organizers from the GMU Center — Anna Tollison (wife of Robert), Elizabeth Masaitis, Carol Robert
- Organizers from Savarese & Assoc. — Jim Savarese, Leslie Dalton, Kelleigh Varnum
- Organisers from Ogilvy & Mather— Richard Marcus, Marcia Silverman, Patricia Milita
If they could claim to be a disinterested 'non-smoker' or even 'anti-smoking' — and " just a concerned citizen" expressing an expert academic opinion — this was seen as further enhancing their value in promoting the industry's positions and policies.
- Write op-ed articles for their local newspapers (after they had first been sub-edited and legally cleared by the Tobacco Institute). This earned them $2-3,000.
- Appear as 'independent' witnesses at local ordinance hearings, or at State or Federal legislative hearings.
- Make public statements to the broadcast or print media, or write letters to the editor supporting the tobacco industry's position [but concealing their connections]
- Make submissions to academic/scientific conferences. This could earn them $5,000.
- Write letters to their Congressmen — which had often been rough-drafted by the tobacco industry.
Some payments were laundered through Savarese & Associates, and some seem to have passed through the Center for the Study of Public Choice. Other means of hiding the sources of payment were probably via tobaco industry lawyers.
Some key documents
• He was a Professor of Economics at Ball State University, Muncie IN
1988: PhD from Texas A&M University
1989: Joined Ball State University as an Associate Professor of Economics under Cecil Bohanon.
1990 May: This is a list of the newspapers designated to certain economists on the network. They are to attempt to plant an op-ed article on "Excise Taxes" on this local newspapers. Cecil Bohanen has been given the Indianapolis Star.
1990 May 7: The Tobacco Institute's "1991 Tax and Social Cost Plans" have sections on
This is an updated list with the current locations of each, with phone numbers and addresses.
- "Social Costs" Hearings Readiness (preparation for fielding witnesses at Congressional hearings.) They list here the arguments that the Institute and its allies must be prepared to present.
- "Tax" Hearing Readiness (as above, but for excise tax increases, State and Federal)
- List of cash-for-comment network economists in each State.
Professor Cecil Bohanon
Department of Economics, Ball State University
Muncie, Indiana 47306 317-285-5363
1990 Aug 20: The Indianapolis Star publishes "No New Mandate for a Tax Hike" by Cecil Bohanon and John B Horowitz.
1990 August 30: /E The Monthly Report of Carol Hrycaj includes the news that:
Consulting economists' anti-excise tax op-eds continue to appear in print.
- Clifford Dobitz's article was published in the Bismarck Tribune.;
- Michael Babcock's op-ed appeared in the Manhattan Mercury.
- The Indianapolis Star published an op-ed coauthored by Cecil Bohanan and John Horowitz
Her "Communications Report" for August and September says:
Economists Bob Tollison and Richard Wagner conducted media tours opposing an increase in federal tobacco excise taxes in Tampa and St. Petersburg, FL; Columbus and Cincinnati, OH; and Houston, TX. Reports and available transcripts from these media visits are enclosed.
Professor Tollison's published response to New York Newsday's editorial supporting an increase in the cigarette tax is also enclosed.
Professor Dwight Lee published an op-ed opposing an increase in excise taxes in the Atlanta Constitution. Professors Bohanon and Horowitz published an op-ed in the Indianapolis Star. The Bismarck Tribune published an op-ed by Professor Cliff Dobitz, and the Manhattan Mercury published Professor Michael Babcock's opposition to excise tax increases. Copies of the articles are enclosed
2012 Apr 19: Associate professor of economics John Horowitz said he sees economic upsides to legalizing marijuana. [Source The Ball State Daily News]