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WARNING: This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
    There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
    Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.


Smoking-Gun docs.


Cash-for-comment economists' network
General TI networks
James E Long
George Berman
James Savarese
Ctr.Study Pub.Choice
James Buchanan
Robert Tollison
Anna Tollison
Richard Wagner
James C Miller III
Carol M Robert
Elizabeth A Masaitis
Committee on Tax & Economic Growth
Harold Hochman
Fred McChesney
Thomas Borcherding
Delores T Martin
Dennis Dyer
George Minshew
Fred Panzer
Susan Stuntz
Peter Sparber
Carol Hrycaj
Debra Schoonmaker
Jeff Ross
Cal George
William Prendergast
Bill Orzechowski

Dominick Armentano
Burton A Abrams
Lee Alston
Ryan C Amacher
Gary Anderson
Lee Anderson
William Anderson
Terry Anderson
Scott E Atkinson
Roger Arnold
Richard W Ault
Michael Babcock
Joe A Bell
Bruce L Benson
Jean J Boddewyn
Peter Boettke
Thomas Borcherding
William J Boyes
Charles Breeden
Lawrence Brunner
Henry N Butler
Bill Bryan
Cecil Bohanon
John H Bowman
Dennis L Chinn
Morris Coates
Roger Congleton
Jeffrey R Clark
Michael Crew
Allan Dalton
John David
Michael Davis
Arthur T Denzau
Clifford Dobitz
John Dobra
Robert Ebel
Randall Eberts
Robert B Ekelund
Roger L Faith
David Fand
Susan Feigenbaum
Clifford Fry
Lowell Gallaway
Celeste Gaspari
David ER Gay
Kenneth V Greene
Kevin B Grier
Brian Goff
Sherman Hanna
Anne Harper-Fender
Kathy Hayes
Dennis Hein
James Heins
Robert Higgs
Richard Higgins
F Steb Hipple
Harold M Hochman
George E Hoffer
John Howe
Randall G Holcombe
William Hunter
Stephen Huxley
John D Jackson
Joseph M Jadlow
Cecil Johnson
Samson Kimenyi
David Klingaman
Michael Kurth
David Laband
Suuner Lacroix
Dwight R Lee
Dennis Logue
James E {Auburn} Long
C. Matt Lindsay
Donald P Lyden
Craig MacPhee
Mike Maloney
Delores Martin
Chuck Mason
Charles Maurice
Fred McChesney
James E McClure
William McEachern
Richard McKenzie
Robert McMahon
Arthur Mead
Paul L Menchik
John F Militello
William C Mitchell
Greg Neihaus
James A Papke
Allen Parkman
Mark Pauly
William Peterson
Harlan Platt
Michael D Pratt
Thomas Pogue
Barry W Poulson
Edward Price
Robert Pulsinelli
Raymond Raab
Roger Riefler
Terry Ridgeway
Mario Rizzo
Morgan Reynolds
Simon Rottenberg
Randy Rucker
Richard Saba
Todd Sandler
David Saurman
Mark Schmitz
Robert Sexton
Gordon O Shuford
William Shughart
Robert J Staaf
Thomas Stimson
Wendell Sweetser
Mark Thornton
Mark Toma
David G Tuerck
Richard Vedder
Bruce Vermeullen
Richard Wagner
J Keith Watson
Burton Weisbrod
Walter E Williams
Thomas L Wyrick
Bruce Yandle
Boon Yoon
Richard O Zerbe




Dolores Tremewan ('Dee') Martin     [Prof ]    

(aka Delores (often) and Delores Tremewan Martin)

— One of the first economists to be recruited by Robert Tollison for the economists network of cash-for-comments academics. She was from the University of Nebraska and became a major tobacco tout. —  

Professor Delores Martin was one of the foundation members of the Tobacco Institute's cash-for-comments network. She was one of the core group of Public Choice economists who advised the Tobacco Institute to set up the network, and was a key member of its first incarnation as the faux-Committee on Taxation and Economic Growth

Tobacco lobbyist James Savarese and Professor Robert Tollison of George Mason University collaborated in the 1980s to provide the tobacco industry, through the Tobacco Institute, with networks of academics in various disciplines who would be willing to write and sprout propaganda material ... always provided the payments for these services were not directly tracealble back to the Institute or to any of the cigarette companies.

The idea was simply that these academic 'sleepers' would be available on a cash-for-services basis when needed to counter attempts to increase excise taxes or to ban public smoking ... or just to appear as 'independent experts' at Congressional hearings and promote the industry causes.

Economist were by far the most useful of the acolyte academics because the distinction between economics and politics was never clear: so support of the cigarette companies could always be portrayed as support for free-market economics including the rights of individuals to make public choices ... small government ... or even the first Amendment to the Constitution.

The economist working for Savarese, always claim to be 'independent' 'professionals' and ' academics', and they exploited the fact that they came from some credible university. They never revealed the source of their funding in their op-eds or letters-to-the-editor.

If ever put under cross-examination, they must be able to claim (with weasel-word imprecision) that they had "never received a penny from the tobacco industry". Therefore all payments were laundered, either through tobacco industry lawyers ( usually Covington & Burling),) the principle organisers James Savarese & Associates, or through Bob Tollison's Center for the Study of Public Choice at George Mason University.

The aim was to have, in each State, at least

  • one academic economist,
  • one academic lawyer, and
  • one academic from a business management, business law, marketing or advertising discipline
willing to jump into action and write op-ed articles for their local newspaper or to appear at local ordinance or legislative hearings. Copies were always sent to any local Congressman who sat on some important (to the tobacco industry) committee.

The academics were always expected to wave their own and their university's credentials vigorously, and loudly proclaim their "independence' from any crass-commercial motives. And those who could boast of being 'non-smokers' were especially prized — since without this addiction, their non-dependent-on-tobacco status was thought to be proved beyond any doubt!

Unfortunately, it worked.

Delores Martin was a member of the Public Choice Society, and learned her economics at Virginia Polytechnic under James Buchanan and Robert Tollison. She was also associate with the heritage Foundation between 1982 and '84.

Network beginnings:
  • 1979 Jan: Academic economists Professor Robert Tollison and Richard Wagner have been recruited by George Berman of Devon Management Resources to provide material supporting the International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI... later INFOTAB)
  • 1980: Tollison and Wagner had been commissioned by ICOSI's Social Acceptability Working Party (SAWP) to write a monograph "Consumer Protection, Public Policy and Cost-Benefit Analysis"
  • 1982: Under Tollison and Public Choice guru James Buchanan, the team of Public Choice economists at Virginia Polytechnic/State University resign en masse and migrate over to the break-away, corporate funded, George Mason University (including their think-tank Center) — thus providing the tobacco industry with a Washington DC pool of unfettered free-market Randian-political economists who are all looking for outside commissions.
  • 1982 Nov: A labor economic lobbyist working for his own company (through via Ogilvy & Mather PR), James Savarese, proposes to the Tobacco Institute that they use academic economists (mainly Kenneth Greene of SUNY and Harold Hochman of CUNY) to prepare papers opposing cigarette tax excise increases in New York State.
  • 1983: The Tobacco Instittue puts the Tollison/Wagner team (which has the resources of the Center for Study of Public Choice, together with Savarese and Ogilvy & Mather PR to prepare a book "Free to Smoke" and later a propaganda booklet Smoking & Society
  • 1984 Jan /E. The Tobacco Institute is now expanding the Savarese-run network of economist to other States — mainly recruiting academic economists to write op-eds for their local newspapers. Tollison is able to provide the recruitment services through his Center for the Study of Public Choice and the Public Choice Society.
  • 1984 April: The Tobacco Institute has again put Tollison together with Savarese and his associates to prepare a pseudo-study which will become their economic defence against proposed smoking bans in New York resturants. The TI's Excise Tax Plan for this month lists 14 Public Choice economists in other States who have been recruited to help in the fight against excise increases.
  • 1984 Jun: The network has now been formalised under the name Committee on Taxation and Economic Growth. with Savarese as administrator. They have about 15 members overall and 10 active op-ed writers.

The foundation document for the network still in the tobacco industry archives is a Draft plan by the Tobacco Institute dated 30 April 1984 "Cigarette Excise Tax Plan" which was aimed at countering the Reagan Administration's "Packwood Tax Plan".

Potential Economic Consultants
Following is a list of economists in key states who might assist us as consultants. We have begun contacting them to ensure their willingness and expertise. We are asking each about past experience; work with similar issues; previous work with the indusry; published articles or research; and speaking availability.

As discussed in the body of this program, our intent is to have a group of individuals who we can call upon regularly to testify, conduct special research projects, and discuss their research and/or views on excise taxes with the media.

  • California, Thomas Borsherding, Claremont College
  • Connecticut, William McEachern, University of Washington
  • Florida, Richard Wagner, Florida State University
  • Georgia, Fred McChesney, Emory University Law School
  • Illinois, James Heins, University of Illinois
  • Massachusetts, Harlan Platt, Northeastern University
  • Minnesota, Thomas Stimson, University of Minnesota (St. Paul Campus)
  • New York, Harold Hochman, City University of New York
  • Ohio, David Klingaman, Ohio University
  • Pennsylvania, Mark Pauly, University of Pennsylvania
  • Texas, Charles Maurice, Texas A&M University
  • Washington, Yoram Barazel, University of Washington
  • Washington, D.C. Robert D. Tollison, George Mason University
  • Wisconsin, Burton Weisbrod, University of Wisconsin

Tollison is the most influential and prestigious on this list; he would be hired to consult on federal tax situations and to oversee efforts of the others throughout the country.

See last page http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xnu98b00/pdf
Yoram Barazel is the only name on this list who appears to have resisted the Institute's overtures.


There is a Dean Temewan who wrote for Capitol News Services. Also a Delores Downing Martin, an artist, and a Dolores Martin who married a Californian Congressman.
    This Dee Martin was a Republican propagandist and also associated with the notorious National Chamber Foundation (the lobbying arm of the US Chambers of Commerce).Christopher Tremewan Martin PhD appears to be her son.
    On the other side of the Clinton/Republican divide was Dee Dee Martin of the Clinton White House who went on to become an advisor on authenticity of the TV Series "West Wing".
    And there's a Dolores A Martin, an attorney and Assistant Attorney General involved in tobacco legislation in Charleston, West Virginia.

Some key documents

• Professor Dolores Martin, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska. She was also a member of the Public Choice Society, and she collaborated with Roger Riefler. An associate, Professor Craig R MacPhee, also worked out of the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, for the Tobacco Institute.

• There are at least 65 documents in the tobacco archives which refer to her as "Delores" and 82 which have her name as "Dolores" and quite a few with just "Dee" and even more as "DT Martin" and "D Martin". She also used the Tremewan name intermittently.

• Her C/V as sent to the Tobacco Institute in late 1984 or early 1985.

1940 June 11: Born Elko, Nevada

1966–71: Assistant Professor, Radford College, Radford, Virginia [Dates as listed in her CV]

1967 June: MA (Economics) from University of Nevada

1971–72: Instructor Montgomery College, Rockville, Maryland

1973–74: Instructor New River Community College, Dublin Virginia

1975: Associate Professor Department of Economics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

1976 Jan: PhD (Economics) from Virginia Polytechnic/State

1978 Oct: Journal of Law and Economics: She is co-writing with Richard Wagner "The Institutional Framework for Municipal Incorporation: An Economic Analysis of Local Agency Formation Commissions in California,"

Delores Martin was recruited by Ogilvy & Mather in early 1984. She appears to have been recommended by Richard Wagner who was then acting as a consultant to the Tobacco Institute and its support teams. This appears to be the same year she joined the University of Nebraska as a Professor in Public Finance.

    Initially she was recruited into the tobacco-industry's fake Committee on Taxation and Economic Growth (see below) and later given the state of Nebraska to influence.

1984 June: /E In 1984 Robert D. Tollison [of George Mason University] joined forces with four other economists: Harold M. Hochman [CUNY], Thomas E. Borcherding [Claremont College LA], Fred McChesney [Emory Uni] and Dolores T. Martin [Uni of Nebraska], to start the Committee on Taxation and Economic Growth. This very quickly became

"an informal committee of economists from 42 states who have collectively and individually participated in activities on behalf of the tobacco industry in the areas of excise taxation and public smoking."
This committee was funded by the Tobacco Institute (TI) through Ogilvy & Mather Public Relations (O&M) and James Savarese and Associates. Tollison and James Saverese were old associates.


    The Tobacco Institute paid to publish a booklet promoting the new organisaton and the five leaders (complete with cute portraits of each which cost them $500 a time) propounding the new philosophy (but without any mention of the Tobacco Institute — and only peripheral mention of 'cigarettes'):

1984 June 6: Patricia Militia from O&M reported to Michael Brozek, regional vice president of the Tobacco Institute that:

"Dolores Martin, a public finance professor from the University of Nebraska, has agreed to deliver testimony in Minneapolis. I will have more information about her as well as her testimony in the next few days. I'll send it to you as soon as I receive it. I will also forward the testimony for the business spokesperson you identify."

1984 June 19: Her remarks on "Fundamental Tax Reform" at the Treasury Hearing. She makes no admission that she is giving the statement on behalf of the tobacco industry, or that she is being paid by the Tobacco Institute... in fact, she implies the opposite, saying spontaneously: "My remarks are my own." In summing up, she comes to the conclusion that:

"I think the Panel will come to the conclusion I have reached: that federal excise taxes ought to be abolished"
Which, fortuitously, was the Tobacco Institute's position also.

1984 June 20: Patricia Milita of Ogilvy & Mather PR writes to Michael Kerrigan at the Tobacco Institute.

Following is the information you requested on The Tobacco Institute's involvement in the U.S. Department of Treasury's tax simplification hearings in your region.
  • So far, one hearing has been held in the Northern Sector: in Minneapolis on Tuesday, June 19. Dolores Martin, an economics professor at the University of Nebraska, presented testimony at that hearing. We arranged interviews for her with KSTP-AM (radio) and KSTP-TV (both are St. Paul stations). A copy of her testimony and a biographical sketch are attached.
  • The next hearing in your region will be in New York on Monday, June 25. Harold Hochman, an economics professor at Baruch College of the City University of New York, will testify. Hochman's testimony (subject to his revision) and biographical information are attached. We are seeking media coverage for him.
  • The final hearing is scheduled for Thursday, June 28 in Springfield, Illinois. We are now preparing testimony and seeking both an academician and a small business spokesperson to present testimony at that hearing.

1984 June 20: Maureen Delanty of Ogilvy & Mather PR has written to Peter Sparber at the Tobacco Institute.
[This memo is quite separate from the one immediately below.].

    She is informing Sparber (the top Issues Manager at the TI) of their success with having tobacco industry witnesses appear at a Treasury Hearing on excise taxes in Minneapolis.

Dr Dolores Martin, University of Nebraska, testified at the Minneapolis hearing yesterday. She was responsible, effective, and spoke articulately with reporters.

    We arranged interviews with:
  • KSTP-AM, news/talk radio This was a 15-minute phone interview, mostly on the subject of the flat tax, to be aired during morning drive time.
  • KSTP-TV (ABC) They interviewed Dr Martin following her testimony. She was asked to explain the regressivity of consumption taxes. We will get a copy of the story if you wish.
  • We also distributed Dr Martin's testimony to the other reporters covering the hearing, including: Minneapolis Public Radio, WTCN-TV, WCCO-TV, Minneapolis Star & Tribune, Nation's Business

1984 July: The Tobacco Institute's Cigarette Excise Tax Plan.
The plan augments our basic lobbying efforts by relying on groups outside the industry — some not regularly associated with the industry — to argue against excise taxes for us.

    It is an ambitious program, based on the notion that many of the most effective protests against tobacco taxes will come from groups philosophically distant from The Institute. Many such groups agree with us on the excise issue, even though they disagree with us on other matters.

    At the federal level, supporting Congressional members from the tobacco states is essential to our lobbyists. The tobacco members consistently vote as a unified group — something that is rarely seen in Congress today. They are our lobbyists' most important resource.

    The program recommends that economic and other consultants assist us in developing, "packaging," and presenting our anti-excise arguments in legislative testimony or meetings with coalition members.

Economic consultants with different areas of expertise will conduct research and act as spokespersons for The Institute and organizations supported by The Institute. Specific activities with economists are discussed throughout the tactics.

  • Stimulate reputable public finance economists at key state universities to determine the validity of state revenue forecasts, perhaps on behalf of state business organizations and present arguments against excise taxes in various forums; e.g., meetings with potential coalition members or budget officials.
  • Encourage economists to make the case against regressive taxation in meetings with potential coalition members and legislators.
  • Retain public finance economists affiliated with non-profit organizations to research the subject and use their findings in forums such as:
    • Private meetings with state legislators or staff ;
    • formal testimony before government bodies ;
    • targeted media appearances;
    • speeches before business, civic, labor, and other groups ;
    • tax symposia in key states where the proceedings could be published for use in other states ; and
    • articles which raise the visibility of key arguments in the business, academic, and popular press.
  • Presenting specific members of the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees with arguments prepared by economists with whom they share some common interest; e.g college affiliation, service on the same commission.
  • Gaining the support of Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ), the most influential labor/liberal tax reform group in the country, in opposition to excise taxes.
  • Relying on the AFL-CIO — via The Bakery, Confectionery, and Tobacco Workers Union — to ensure that the labor/liberal tax package that emerges in the next session of Congress does not include tobacco.

Appendix: A list of economists in key states who may be willing to act as industry and third-party spokespersons on the tax issue.
Following is a list of economists in key states who might assist us as experts receiving honoraria. We have begun contacting them to ensure their willingness and expertise. We are asking each about past experience; work with similar issues; previous work with the industry; published articles or research; and availability.

    Our intent is to have a group of individuals whom we can call upon as needed to testify, conduct special research and discuss their research projects and/or views on excise taxes with budget officials, potential coalition members, legislators and the media.

1984 July 16: A summary report of the Tobacco Institute notes that they had managed to plant economist witnesses at six of the eight Treasury Department regional hearings.

  • Thomas Borsherding at Los Angelos on June 12
  • Delores Martin at Minneapolist on June 19
  • Fred McChesney at Atlanta on June 20
  • Harold Hochman at New York on July 25 (sic...June?)
  • Robert Tollison at Washington on June 26
  • Roger Kormendi at Springfield June 28

    All of these economists were member of the network at this time.

1984 Oct 26: A document "Federal Excise Program" of the Tobacco Institute [has handnotes]

  • Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ) producing series of brochures with O&M [Ogilvy & Mather]
    The note says "Met with CTJ. See Maureen's memo. Unsatisfactory. We made counter proposal. Names of unions are a must. [Publication should list CTJ membership] resolved."

        It also has a Project Plan section which has an entry for Project E.2
    • Brochure summarizing position on earmarking of business, health, labor, and seniors organizations. — Obtain agreement from B[ob] Tollison O&MPR for Committee on Taxation & Economic Growth to sponsor.

[Note: O&MPR refers to the Tobacco Institute's public relations company, a subsidiary of the Ogilvy & Mather advertising agency. O&M's chief disinformation expert at this time was Jim Savarese who later worked directly for the Tobacco Institute through his own company James Savarese & Associates.

    They were organising the economists network through Robert Tollison (with the help of Richard Wagner) at George Mason University. The CTEG was just the first stage of this network; later the term was dropped.]

1984 Dec 13: Bill Kloepfer reporting at the Tobacco Institute's Annual Meeting about the success of this early economists network.

The largest immediate issue is excises. We've had consulting economists at Secretary Regan's regional hearings on tax simplification. Each of them have built into the record testimony, calling excise taxes "lousy."

    Five of these economists have formed a Committee on Taxation and Economic Growth and with our help have published their views in a pamphlet. They travel anywhere to testify and have been helpful in lining up other expert witnesses.

    A tax reform and simplification seminar in Atlanta will be conducted by two of these experts in February. A Member of the House Ways and Means Committee from Atlanta is one of the feature participants. This seminar will place this Congressional Member firmly on the record in front of his own constituents, against excises. A few months later, a similar seminar will be held in New York.

1985: In late 1984 or early 1985 Delores Martin's C/V was sent to the Tobacco Institute.

1985 Jan 31: Hurst Marshall has distributed this Tobacco Institute list of economists from the cash-for-comments network. It has been organise by State, and includes the names of Congressmen they wish to influence.

Attached for your information are the names of economists who have been identified by PR to assist TI on the federal cigarette excise tax issue.

These people are also available to testify at the state level.

    If you feel that this type of witness can be of assistance to you on state cigarette tax issues, please contact Fred Panzer for details and arrangements.

    Please notify your lobbyists as to the availability of these people. At the same time, you may wish to ask them for their ideas or suggestions for other economists within their states.
This economist will be detailed to make the contact with Congressmen [by sending him/them the published op-ed]:
NEBRASKA [No Rep.Listed]
  •   Professor Delores Martin
      University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska

1985 Feb 21: Roger Mozingo of the Tobacco Institute is sending his state directors a list of resources available to fight against excise taxes in their states. Delores Martin heads their state list of available economic witnesses for Nebraska.

1985 June 20: The Tobacco Institute got a second run out of Dolores Martin's Treasury Hearing statement by using it at a Congressional Hearing of the Ways and Means Committee on Cigarette Excise Taxes

    There is no sign that they paid her twice for this recirculated opinion. It also credited her with the use of "ban excise taxes" as a primary slogan on some brochures.

1986 Jan: The Tobacco Institute's Public Relations Resource Catalogue for their Regional Directors, lists documents, booklets, article, posters and people who can help them fight local public smoking ordinances and threats to raise the excise taxes on cigarettes.

    It provides a long list of economists who are willing to speak at hearings, write letters to the editor, or create op-eds for the newspapers to counter any threat to public smoking or possible increase in excise taxes.

    The Tobacco Institute offered their Regional Directors the C/Vs of all of these economists, and said

"Requests for economists should be made ASAP. Allow at least one week. PR approval needed."
She is listed [along with 50 other economists] as a contact in:
  • Professor Delores Martin
    Department of Economics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NB
She is available on two weeks notice as a witness for hire.
Public Smoking/Witness: Local economists are available on two-weeks notice to provide economic testimony on the public smoking issue. Those economists who have testified or prepared op-ed pieces on the economic effects of public smoking are marked accordingly. The others may be briefed on the potential cost to government of implementing smoking restrictions.

Tax witness: [She will] "explain why excise taxes are regressive and unfair to consumers and unsuitable and unreliable as a means to increase the federal revenue."

    Those economists who have testified or prepared op-ed pieces on the economic effects of public smoking are marked accordingly. The others may be briefed on the potential cost to government of implementing smoking restrictions.

1986 Mar 11: Bill Kloepfer (Head of PR) reports to Sam Chilcote the president of the Tobacco Institute on a meeting he has had with "Consulting Economists" over "Tax Issue Advice"

As you suggested, I met March 5 in a hotel room with five economists to discuss approaches by the industry to tax issues. Pete Sparber participated. Attending were:
  • James Savarese, Ogilvy & Mather
  • Dennis Logue, Dartmouth
  • Dolores Martin, University of Nebraska
  • Dwight Lee, University of Georgia
  • Henry Butler, University of Chicago
Consensus among the consultants emerged on four points:
  1. Some types of earmarking of cigarette excises may be beneficial.
  2. Plotting of a long-run demand curve for cigarettes is necessary.
  3. Academic research on the "social costs" issue is needed.
  4. Institute support of alternatives to excises as revenue sources is undesirable.
For background, I provided three documents to the consultants a week before the meeting: The executive summary of the Chase [Econometrics] study; the state activities division Feb. 10 memorandum on "Tax Revenue Earmarking Trends and Comments"; and the DeSeve [Economics Associates, Inc.] regressivity study.
[Truncated notes also on]
  • Earmarking: The advice we received was to consider carefully any earmarking proposals, perhaps accepting those which present a coalition probability and protesting those which do not.
  • Demand Curve: The effect of price, including excises, on cigarette demand apparently is usually measured on an immediate basis. Most economists evidently find the demand for cigarettes to be relatively inelastic. [because they are addictive]
  • Social Cost: While the so-called social costs issue affects public policy in many ways, it was recognized as one of the incentives for increased cigarette taxes. The group recognized the 1985 Office of Technologic Assessment memorandum as a landmark and its members indicated they would welcome an opportunity to study it as a basis for proposing research projects which could mitigate its unwarrented effects.

        They understand that The Institute does not have an economic research budget per se, but that we would welcome any suggestions which we might consider on their merits.
The discussion lasted for about five hours. It was quite worthwhile. We should take appropriate steps internally now to consider the major points which emerged.

1986 Apr 3: James Savarese writes to his stable of economists on the subject of "New Research Opportunities." [A sure-fire come-on with academics]

I would like to thank you for all of your cooperation and diligence in handling the projects we have worked on together. I am taking this opportunity to alert you to some new research opportunities that may be available in the upcoming weeks.

    The Tobacco Institute is interested in considering research proposals which would establish a much more realistic examination of the social cost issue as it relates to the smoking issue.
He includes an OTA paper on the dangers of smoking and also...
... rebuttals developed by Bob Tollison and Richard Wagner to the OTA report.

    The Institute would like to examine proposals for research that test, in a quantitative way, a number of propositions on the relevant cost considerations that apply to the smoking issue.

    If some aspect of this interests you, please provide me with a brief (1-2 page) description of any project you have in mind by April 30. Please include a cost approximation.
The scent of possible research money on top of the op-ed writing must have generated substantial academic enthusiasm. She is listed as one of the recipients of this letter on the "Brainstorming - Research Ideas" project.

1986 Apr 3: This appears to be the approved copy of the letter on "New Research Proposals" that Jim Savarese sent to his long list of network economists. This letter leaves no doubt that these academic economist knew that they were being paid to protect the interests of the tobacco industry.

    The economist were also being given outline "rebuttals" developed by Tollison and Wagner to help them in writing their counter-attacks to an an Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) anti-smoking report.

I would like to thank you for all of your cooperation and diligence in handling the projects we have worked on together. I am taking this opportunity to alert you to some new research opportunities that may be available in the upcoming weeks.

As you know, the tobacco industry is exposed continuously to a barrage of attacks on economic issues. Many of these attacks involve a serious perversion of the concept of social cost. The Tobacco Institute is interested in considering research proposals which would establish a much more realistic examination of the social cost issue as it relates to the smoking issue.

I have attached a report prepared by the staff of the Office of Technology Assessment which is representative of the kind of "research" being put forth by anti-tobacco activists. I have also included the rebuttals developed by Bob Tollison and Richard Wagner to the OTA report.

The Institute would like to examine proposals for research that test, in a quantitative way, a number of propositions on the relevant cost considerations that apply to the smoking issue.
This went out to the cash-for-comments economist on the network.

[At this time Delores Martin was on leave from the University, and temporarily working for the "Advisory Council on Intergovernmental Relations" and the Republican Party in Washington. She doesn't appear to have taken up Savarese's offer.]

1986 May: A bundle of 72 pages of information is being circulated by the Tobacco Institute to its Regional Directors. The data is predominantly on the tobacco-industry beat-up known as Sick Building Syndrome and on the general problems of Indoor Air Quality [all down-playing the effects of smoking in confined spaces]

    Section 1 is headed

List of sources. Local and national experts you can call for quotes or background information. It promotes the services of three specialist lobbyists
  • Lewis Solmon - an academic who discounts problems of workplace smoking
  • Al Vogel - who claims to be an expert in public attitudes to smoking
  • Mike Forscey, a labor lawyer/lobbyist who helped the tobacco industry keep the union movement on-side.
They have also provided a list of the 52 Professors of Economics from various State Universities who can be called on to provide services for roughly $1000 a time: This economists name and address are included under "Tobacco & Taxation (listed by state, alphabetically)".

1986 Oct 3: A Tobacco Institute report on the economists network, lists the Congressmen they are expected to influence,and the economist's various academic specialities.

    This early list is probably the most detailed of all. A later section of this 43 page document also runs through the 28 main states giving the names and details of witnesses willing to speak to legislators on Taxes (almost exclusively economists), and those available as witnesses for the tobacco industry on Public Smoking issues (economists and a range of others)

    A major effort had also been made recently to enlist fire officers and brigades to counter demands for a 'fire-safe' cigarette which had low ignition propensity.


[Economist:] Professor Delores Martin, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
[Speciality:] State government taxation and fiscal policy.

Tax Witnesses: Materials available
Delores Martin Nebraska data card
"Excise Taxes: The Fairness Issue"
"More Taxes on Tobacco...."
Earmarking topic sheet
Letter writing brochure.
Public Smoking Witnesses: Materials available
Al Vogel (productivity)
Steve Schlossberg (labor implications)
Lew Solmon (economics)
Bob Klotz (enforcement)
Voter survey
Economic survey
Labor assistance
Response Analysis summaries
Public Smoking topic sheet
"Some Considerations" workplace kits
"In Defense of Smokers" reprint
"The Other Side of the Smoking Controversy" reprint
Letter writing brochure
Fire Safety Education Grant to Lincoln Fire Department: Mike Merwick.

New Tools for Volunteer Fire Fighters
Media Relations:
Contacts are in place in Kearney, Licoln and Omaha. Contact Bill Toohey for assistance.

1986 Oct 3: The State Directors for the Tobacco Institute have been reviewing all economics network witnesses in their territories, and culling those who are not actively participating. The Washington DC office is now circulating to its State Directors a list of the economists available who...

"...have been identified in several states by J. Savarese as available and hopefully capable to testify in our behalf, or aid in our defense against proposed state of local legislation, from an economic aspect.
This list differs from others in providing a list of the economic specialities of each network economist, along with the Congresmen they were designated to influence. She is listed as specializing in:
Professor Delores Martin
    University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska
    [Specializing in]State government taxation and fiscal policy.

1986 Dec 11: James Savarese sends Fred Panzer at the Tobacco Institute a summary of the activities of his network of economists. This is effectively the beginning of the main cash-for-comments economists network.

Dear Fred,
    I have attached a list of all the economists we have used along with the projects they have worked on in behalf of the Tobacco Institute.
There are now 62 names on the list (Some states have 4 or 5) not counting himself and Bob Tollison. The details given for each consist of State, Regional Division [of the TI], Name, Address and Telephone number. Added to this is a list of the 'Projects' they have completed (in later lists, also the names of Congressmen they have contacted.)

    Virtually all of these cash-for-comment academics have been generating op-ed articles for newspapers, or have, in some unspecified way, opposed the Packwood Excise Tax plan — or perhaps helped fake up one of the 'Chase' [Econometrics studies]. A few participants have attended Congressional or government inquiries ['Treasury I') or local ordinance hearings as 'independent witnesses' while secretly acting for the tobacco industry. Two of the 64 members (Ann Harper-Fender and Gary Anderson) were acting termporarily as advisors to Ronald Reagan's Advisory Council on Intergovernmental Relations— which sought to bring pressure on the FDA, EPA and OSHA and stop them being pro-active with smoking bans.

    Other participants have been promoting the industry line at various academic conferences and fora [mainly as keynote speakers at economic society meetings] , and a few of the core-team were involved in brianstorming sessions with members of the tobacco industry looking for new angles for their PR, and for possible research project which might generate some economic propaganda for the industry.

    Many of them have joined in with the industry's orchestrated letter-writing campaigns opposing workplace smoking bans.
  • GSA = Government Services Administration.
  • 'Ways & Means' = Congressional committee on finances
  • ALEC = American Legislative Exchange Council (a formalised way for big business to directly influence Congressional and State politicians)
  • Chase Econometrics = A company that did economic impact studies for the tobacco industry in various locations to 'prove' that smoking bans would destroy local economies.

        The references for this network member were:

Professor Delores Martin

    Advisory Council on Intergovernmental Relations , 1111 20th Street NW, Suite 2000, Washington, DC 20575, 202-653-5544, (on leave from University of Nebraska)

    Services rendered:
    • original excise tax op-ed
    • brainstorming meeting with Kloepfer
    • regional hearings, Treasury I - Minneapolis

1987 Jan 6: A James Savarese memo to Fred Panzer at the Tobacco Institute.

In-order to keep this project straight with respect to the economist list, we were specifically assigned to go back to all 42 names on the original list to check to see if the economists were still interested in working for us, still in the same state, and available to meet with representatives from state activities.

    We have 34 who fit this criteria and have been contacted. The list is attached.

    The states that we once had that are currently missing are Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Jersey, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming.

    The states listed in October 1986 as having representives, but not now are:
  • Arizona, Professor Roger D Faith of Arizona State Uni
  • Maryland, Professor David Laband, University of Maryland
  • Massachusetts, Professor Lee Alston, William College, Williamstown
  • Nebraska, Professor Delores Martin, University of Nebraska
  • New Jersey, Professor Michael Crew, Rutgers University
  • Vermont, Professor Celeste Gaspari, Univesity of Vermont
  • West Virginia, Professor Morris Coates, Marshall University
  • Wyoming, Professor Todd Sandler, University of Wyoming.
Not all of these professors ceased working for the tobacco industry entirely, however. Some provide later services.

October 1986 list
January 1987 list

Delores Martin appears to have been culled from the list in late 1986 — to be replaced by Professor Craig MacPhee of the same university. It is apparent that she was drawn back into the fold a few years later, because MacPhee disappears and Martin reappears in the archives.

    In late 1987 she was working in Washington with Robert Stein at the Advisory Commission on Interagency Relations (ACIR).

1990: "Behind the Veil: The Political Economy of Constitutional Change" by William Shughart Gary Anderson, Delores Martin, and Robert Tollison.

    In W. Mark Crain and Robert D. Tollison, eds., Predicting Politics: Essays in Empirical Public Choice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990,

1991 Jan: /E Tobacco Institute draft plan for 1991 with emphasis on "Taxes." These are the economist-related paragraphs:

To discourage reliance on consumer excise taxes on cigarettes to meet social and economic objectives by demonstrating that excise taxes are regressive and inconsistent with fair taxation.

Goals and Tactics:
  • Commission two op-ed articles in 1991 from consulting economists. As articles are published, provide to other Institute decisions for promotion and submission to appropriate policy makers.
  • Conduct at least 10 presentations by consulting economists on the excise tax issue before national, regional and state tax policy conferences.
  • Continue to utilize consulting economists for testimony and briefings. Expand appearances to include presentations to business clubs and the business press. Conduct media refresher courses for public speaking appearance and delivery of testimony.
  • Utilize the consulting economists for an op-ed program that addresses the national earmarking issue and state specific earmarking issues. As articles are published, provide to other Institute divisions and promote to appropriate public policymakers. Use field staff network to support distribution efforts.

1991 Jan 8: Savarese has sent the current list of network economists to Carol Hyrcaj at the Tobacco Institute. It contains three new names, but otherwise is essentially the same as the old lists.

    ALABAMA, Robert B. Ekelund, Jr., Auburn University
    ARIZONA, William J. Boyes, Arizona State University
    ARKANSAS, David E. R. Gay, University of Arkansas
    CALIFORNIA, Gary Anderson, California State at Northridge
                Roger Arnold, California State Univ. - San Marcos
    COLORADO, Barry Poulson, University of Colorado
    CONNECTICUT, Dominick Armentano, University of Hartford
    DELAWARE, Burton Abrams, University of Delaware
    FLORIDA, Bruce Benson, Florida State University
    GEORGIA, Dwight R. Lee, University of Georgia
    IDAHO, Allan Dalton, Boise State University
    ILLINOIS, James Heins, University of Illinois
    INDIANA, Cecil Bohanon, Ball state University
    IOWA, Todd Sandler, Iowa State University
    KANSAS, Michael Babcock, Kansas State University
    KENTUCKY, Brian Goff, Western Kentucky University
    LOUISIANA, Michael Kurth, McNeese State University
    MAINE, Robert McMahon, University of Southern Maine
    MASSACHUSETTS, David Tuerck, Suffolk University
    MISSISSIPPI, Bill Shughart, University of Mississippi
    MISSOURI, Joe A Bell, Southwest Missouri State University
                Thomas I. Wyrick, Southwest Missouri State University
    MONTANA, Terry L. Anderson, Montana State University
    NEBRASKA, Dee Martin, University of Nebraska
    NEVADA, John Dobra, University of Nevada Reno
    NEW HAMPSHIRE, Dennis Logue, Dartmouth College
    NEW MEXICO, Allen Parkman, University of New Mexico
    NORTH DAKOTA, Cliff Dobitz, North Dakota State University
    OHIO, Richard Vedder, Ohio University
    OKLAHOMA, Joseph Jadlow, Oklahoma State University
    OREGON, William Mitchell, University of Oregon
    PENNSYLVANIA, Ann Harper-Fender, Gettysburg College
    RHODE ISLAHD, Arthur Mead, Universityof Rhode Island
    SOUTH CAROLINA, Ryan Aiaacher, Clemson University
    SOUTH BikEOTA, Dennis lain, Augustana College
    TENNESSEE, JR Clark, The University of Tennessee at Martin
    TEXAS, S Charles Maurice, Texas ASM University
                Michael Davis, Southern Methodist University
    VIRGINIA, Richard B Wagner, George Mason University
    WASHINGTON, Richard D. Zerbe, Jr., University of Washington

At some time in 1991 she transfers over to the Republican staff of the Joint Economic Council, working under the notorious Ed Gillespie.

1991 Nov 14: Martin is now the "Senior Minority Economist, Joint Economic Committee, US Congress" and is participating in a National Chamber Foundation conference designed to attack the Clinton Health Plan.
[The NCF is the lobbying arm of the US Chamber of Commerce — and is available for a fee, for any corporation or trade group with enough cash to pay them generously.]

    The NCF and a coalition of well-funded think-tanks is running a conference "Origins of the Crisis: Health Care Costs and American Business" Notable participants include

  • Derek Crawford, Issues Manager at Philip Morris
  • Calvin George, Issues Manager, Tobacco Institute [Who ran Martin via Savarese]
  • David Nicoli, Legislative Counsel, Philip Morris
  • Lance Pressl, Issues Manager, Philip Morris
  • Norman Ture, IRET (tax lobbyists)
Also a hundred or more lobbyists from pharmacuetical, chemical and similar companies and the think-tank lobbyists they employ to promote inaction.

1992 Nov 7: "Derailing the Small Business Job Expess" report prepared for Dick Armey 9R-TX) [Immediately after the first Clinton/Gore win]. It gives credit to three cash-for-comments economists:

This study was prepared by JEC Republican staff: Visiting Scholars Lowell Gallaway, PhD. and Gary Anderson, Ph.D. (authors); Staff Director Edward Gillespie (editor); and Staff Assistant Nita Morgan (graphics). Dolores Tremewan Martin, Ph.D. and Douglas Koopman, Ph.D. of the JEC/GOP also contributed to this paper.
[Gillespie later went into the White House lobbying business with Jack Quinn, the ex Philip Morris/Arnold & Porter lawyer/lobbyist. Quinn became the top aide to Al Gore in the first term, and transfered to Bill Clinton at the end of his second term.]

1992 Nov 7: She is now working for Dick Armey (R-TX) contributing to the preparation of outright political material for the Republicans as a Senior Economist Joint Economic Committee: "Derailing the Small Business Job Express." She has taken to using her full name, Delores Tremewan Martin.

    On the JEC Republican staff are also two other cash-for-comments economists from the network, Lowell Gallaway and Gary Anderson. They are all working under the notorious lobbyist Ed Gillespie.

    The problem, according to these economists, is that the burden of regulations is stopping the growth of employment. They say:

The bulk of this increased burden is in the form of Federal regulations on businesses, specifically Ihose found in the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1989 (which increased the federally mandated minimum wage), the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990, and the Civil Rights Act of 1991. By 1992, American businesses faced a climate in which they were burdened with about $130 billion of costs beyond those of 1990.
The accompanying graph shows that the 'burden' per worker had increased from about $4,300 in 1982, to $5,300 in 1992 — at a time when inflation was zooming along at sufficient pace to account for most of this change (if you believe their figures).

1993 May 10: Walter Woodson, the Vice president of State Activities at the Tobacco Institute, has written a formal letter to Dee Martin (obviously written for the files):

I understand that you are interested in responses to reports of "monster tobacco taxes" to help fund health care reform. In that vein, enclosed are economic analyses of the effects of a doubling of the current tax, an increase of $1.00/pack and $2.00/pack.

    As you will note, the consequences could be quite dire, not just in the Southeast, but across the country. Hundreds of thousands of jobs would be at risk, as would entire communities whose very existence is inextricably tied to tobacco growing and production.

    If you would like more information on this matter, please contact Bill Orzechowski, our chief economist

[The network members have all been actively writing commissioned op-eds attacking the "Monstrous Excise Taxes" on cigarettes which the new Clinton Administration is threatening to introduce to fund health-care reform.

    Attached is also a single sheet attack on luxury excise taxes from the JEC, which might indicate that it came from Martin. ]

2001 Mar 1: Dean of the Eastern Washington University College of Business and Public Administration.



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