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CREATED 9/19/2012

WARNING: This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
    There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
    Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.


Smoking-Gun docs.

Matt Swetonic
Maurice LeVois
Michael Gough
Steve Milloy (Part 1)
Dow Chemicals

Love Canal
Times Beach
Three Mile Island
Elizabeth Whelan




George Louis Carlo (Part 1)    

(Dow Chemicals, Agent Orange & Dioxins (...to 1990))

— Early years - Carlo's background in nuclear, dioxins and Agent Orange, and the Dow Chemical Co. —  

A time line of one of the most successful scientific con-men of the present day.

This is a compilation of material available mainly on the web. It is in 6 parts, mainly because of the wealth of material that is available. Which begs the question ... why has the media allowed him to get away with these rip-offs, lies and science distortions for so long.

Part 1 is mainly for background — especially to give younger readers some understanding of the Agent Orange and dioxin controversies.

George Carlo is a science-for-sale entrepreneur who has been involved in many industries and many health-related scams over decades — dioxins, Agent Orange, Immunex, rupturing breast implants, passive smoking ... you name it ... George has been involved! He is best known in more recent years for running the (largely-pseudo) $27 million research program into cellphone health known as Wireless Technology Research (WTR) for the Cellular Telephone Industry Association (CTIA).

In 1999 he had an acrymonious falling out with the CTIA which destroyed his prospects of future hiring by large corporations and industry associations. But this was followed by an overnight Damascian conversion; he began to condemn cellphones as producing harmful microwave radiation. In these ventures he joined forces with Peter Angelos, America's richest plaintiff lawyer, to sue the cellphone companies, and then struck up an association with BioPro to run a very profitable cellphone/EMF protection racket, selling useless products to gullible health fanatics.

He split with Peter Angelos, and later he fell out with BioPro, but then discovered a new milieu associating cellphone and Wi-Fi health-scare campaigns with fallacious claims about autism and other similar disabilities, conditions and illnesses. He also began running training courses for people like himself to train them as "natural therapists" and EMF diagnosticians. This is all pure snake-oil salesmanship, using his notoriety as head of the cellphone industry's research project as credentials for his supposed expertise.

This is Part 1 of 6 parts on the life and times of George Carlo which will give the reader some understanding as to how science-for-sale entrepreneurs work. It deals with the three great events which changed public perception of workplace and environmental safety, and destroyed general trust in the regulators:

  • Agent Orange which created extraordinary health problems for Vietnam Vets. (dioxins)
  • Love Canal — the first of the major toxic waste dump scares.
  • Three Mile Island — the first US nuclear power accident scare.
George Carlo claims to have been involved in all three — and not always on the wrong side of the fence. So we have added considerable background material here to explain the development of these public health concerns..

This Part 1 deals with his early years as a genuine epidemiologist, followed by many years supporting Dow Chemicals and promoting propaganda which was disputing the toxicity of dioxins (the dangerous side-product of Agent Orange, waste incineration, and some herbicide manufacture).

In parallel with this dioxin lobbying, (after 1989) he was also involved in helped the tobacco industry maintain its profits, especially from the threat of public and workplace smoking bans (Part 2 and 4). As his reputation grew, other industries became his clients because they were having similar problems with ruptured breast implants, childhood immunisation, and dubious AIDS cures,. Carlo and his non-profits and companies were willing to engage in the defense of virtually any health or environmental scare where corporate funding was available.

George Louis Carlo
Part 1 — Dioxins, Love Canal, Three Mile Island, Agent Orange etc.
Part 2 — Tobacco industry, GEP and miscellaneous chemical industry projects.
Part 3 — Cellphone EMF problems: the CTIA and SAG/WTR
Part 4 — Later tobacco and other — immunology, vaccination, breast implants.
Part 5 — Later problems with cellphone EMF research and the demise of the WTR.
Part 6 — EMF scaremongering and various cellphone 'protection' businesses.

From a later Carlo Institute web-site

Dr. George L. Carlo

    Dr. George Carlo is Chairman of The Carlo Institute. He is a Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology, and is a specialist in assessing and managing risks to public health. His work has included studies addressing risks from the environment and consumer products, as well as the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Dr. Carlo serves on the faculty of The George Washington University School of Medicine.
    While at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, he chaired the research committee of the Department of Family and Community Medicine and designed the acute and chronic clinical work performed by that department. Dr. Carlo has served in diverse scientific advisory capacities, including membership on the US. Congress Office of Technology Assessment Agent Orange Advisory Panel, the chairmanship of Wireless Technology Research, LLC, and director of the Breast Implant Public Health Project, LLC.
    He regularly participates in government expert panels and workshops. Dr. Carlo has published numerous research articles, commentaries, chapters in books, and health policy papers addressing issues in the health sciences. He has testified before Congress and government regulatory bodies. Dr. Carlo often speaks at seminars and conferences and is frequently consulted for television, radio, and newspaper interviews pertaining to public health issues. He earned Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral degrees from the State University of New York at Buffalo and completed legal training at The George Washington University National Law Center. Dr. Carlo has been listed in Who's Who in Science and Engineering, Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare, and Who's Who in the World.
    1711 N Street, NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 20036-2811
    Telephone: 202/833-9500, Facsimile: 202/833-2801, Electronic mail: tci@hesgroup.com
    A non-profit, academic center for scientific understanding and application.

Some key documents

1953 Aug 24: George Carlo was born in New York, His parents were Sicilians from near Palermo. [This family background closely parallelled that of Michael Repacholi who ran the WHO's EMF program: Repacholi's parents also came from the same region of Sicily.]

In the year of his birth, the Hooker Chemical Company, which had owned a disused Love Canal in New York as a place to dump metal barrels containing at least 20,000 tons of chemical waste, sold the tract to the Niagara Falls Board of Education for $1 without warning of dangers from the buried dump; the deed simply disclaimed Hooker's liability for any deaths or injuries that might occur. An elementary school and a housing development were then built on the site.
    [Source: Laying Waste: The poisoning of America by Toxic Chemicals. Michael Brown]

1970 The USA stopped using Agent Orange and Agent Blue in Vietnam supposedly "because of North Vietnamese and Viet Cong charged that herbicides were a form of chemical warfare" and that they were causing birth defects among Vietnamese children as well as severe, perhaps irreversible, ecological damage.

1972 /E: Carlo earned his bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees from State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo

1972 A small group of Boston-area scientists became concerned about the failure of two experiments in emergency water-cooling of small nuclear piles. The experiments had found that in some nuclear accidents, steam was generated around the hot fuel rods to the point where emergency cool water could not contain or control the run-away heat.

    They formed the Union of Concerned Scientists to publicize the problem and demand action. These fears were addressed over the following few years.

1973: Carlo now at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He says that he became a professional assistant football coach for the Buffalo Bulls, at the University.

1974 The Arkansas Power & Light Co fired up their Nuclear One power plant in Pope County. Small radiation leaks from this power station were to make Carlo's name as an epidemiologist — and one where he worked on the side of public health.
  • In this year, the still birth-rate was 20.3 per 1000 births.
  • In 1975 The Pope County still birth-rate rose to 25.4 per 1000
  • In 1976 the rate was 27.5 per 1000
  • In 1977 it hit 26.8 per 1000.

1975 Vietnam veterans, supported by some scientists and politicians, blamed Agent Orange as the cause of their own diseases and of birth defects in their children and demanded medical treatment and monetary compensation. Their efforts received a hugh boost from two television programs. [Source Michael Gough's book "Politicizing Science"]

1976 Jul 10: The Seveso herbicide factory owned by the Roche Group blew up just outside Milan, Italy, releasing an enormous amount of dioxin. The immediate health consequences in Seveso and neighbouring communities were chloracne, a serious skin condition; the potential for long term consequence were largely ignored.

    There is still a dispute about the numbers killed or harmed from the released dioxins (partly because of a coverup by both the companies and the State, but also difficulty in tracing problems back to causes.). In 1996 it was found that in Seveso there was a change in the ratios of boy babies and girls in the exposed families. (males to females 26:48 for children born between April 1977 and December 1984) A 2001 study...
observed no increase in all-cause and all-cancer mortality. However, results support that dioxin is carcinogenic to humans and corroborate the hypotheses of its association with cardiovascular- and endocrine-related effects. In 2009, an update including 5 more years (up to 1996) found the expected increase in "lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue neoplasms" and increased breast cancer.
However, the most important factor in the decision that dioxins were dangerous in the long-term came from laboratory tests, carried out by scientists at the Dow Chemical Company. They showed dioxin to be the most potent cause of birth defects ever found in laboratory test animals. [Source Michael Gough's book "Politicizing Science"]

1976–77: Carlo was a staff epidemiologist on the Medical Sciences Department, University of Arkansas.

[Puff piece] "While at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (sic), he chaired the research committee of the Department of Family and Community Medicine and designed the acute and chronic clinical work performed by that department."
[Source Carlo biog]

[In a March 27 1992 letter to the Wall Street Journal (at time of the Banbury Center scandal) he claimed that his "scientific involvement with dioxins" began in 1972 (certainly a mistake, unless he was refering to his university studies) and that he "designed protocols which were used by the Arkansas Department of Health, about this time, to monitor dioxin-exposed Vietnamese refugees." ]

1977–78: Two epidemiologists with the University of Arkansas, George Carlo and Carol Hogue raised a flag about the local Nuclear One power station, pointing to 'potential problems' with birth defects which were showing up in the still-birth records. According to the Arkansas Gazette, Carlo and Hogue co-wrote a report which they sent to the Arkansas Department of Health warning that:

"a pattern of risk" seemed to have developed in the neighbourhood of the power plant. "The situation should be monitored closely," they said, because "we may be detecting a weak signal."

    Arkansas Power and Light quickly denied any likelihood that Nuclear One "would have any effect on the health of newborns. We have worked closely with the hospital there," said AP&L vice-president, Charles Kelly, "and every indication we've had in monitoring the health effects is that there is none."
Nor was the Carlo/Hogue paper received kindly by local municipal or supported by the local health authorities.
The study, said Director Robert Young of the Arkansas Health Department, was "inconclusive" and offered no evidence that Nuclear One was to blame for the escalating stillbirth rate."
[Source: Arkansas Gazette, October 31, 1979]

The emerging problem of Agent Orange
1977 — 78: The Veterans Administration (VA) initially rejected veterans's claims for treatment and compensation for "Agent Orange diseases", saying that there was no evidence for a linkage between Agent Orange and the diseases for which these claims were made.

    The Veterans had a problem proving that they had been exposed to Agent Orange/dioxin since no records were apparently kept by the military — and the chemical companies all denied that the substance was dangerous, carcinogenic or mutagenic. Agent Orange was also highly variable in its dioxin concentration which made true exposure to the dioxins impossible. Also, other herbicides such as Agent Blue (which contained arsenic) were also used extensively in Vietnam.

1977 July: (summer) the US Air Force disposed of 2.22 million gallons of Agent Orange believed to contain 23 kilograms of dioxins by the use of high-temperature incineration at sea aboard the incinerator ship, M/T Vulcanus [in compliance with the EPA permit requirements] There can be little doubt that the Air Force knew it was dealing with dangerous chemicals by this time.

      [Only revealed at a later International Symposium in Arlington]

Although this was a dioxin problem, Agent Orange remained a relatively dormant issue in the media until about 1980. It was Love Canal which created the public concerns.

George Carlo is now a Teaching Assistant with the Department of
Epidemiology at the SUNY in Buffalo

1977 Sep: Aug 78: Carlo says he worked during this period as a Teaching Assistant, Roswell Park Graduate Division, State University of New York at Buffalo, Department of Epidemiology.

    This suggests that he transfered to a new job which allowed him to pursue a higher qualification. His PhD is from the Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Division of Graduate Studies (SUNYAB), Department of Experimental Pathology (Experimental Pathology/Epidemiology)

[Source: George Carlo's C/V as sent to the Tobacco Institute in 1988.]

Love Canal at Niagra Falls
1977 Nov: This was an unfinished canal had become an industrial waste site which leaked chemicals whenever it rained. It had been given to the New York Education Department, which had then sold various parts of it as housing estates.

    After 30 years of indiscriminate dumping and regular reports of seepages and odours, a local reporter began an investigation of possible links between the contamination and resident illnesses. In 1976 toxicology consultants (Calspan Corp. — an ex-Defence-related general lab group associated with Cornell University) reported serious contamination by dioxins, and this fired up local Congressman LaFalce, who turned up at the site with the Environmenal Protection Agency in tow.

    The EPA tested air in basements, and the New York State Health and Environmental personnel sampled sump pumps and storm sewers. Love Canal citizens organised themselves into three large resident's organisations, and began to lobby for remedial action or relocation. [833 families were eventually relocated]

    In March 1978 the New York health authorities ordered human testing of blood, and a committee of physicians recommended drastic measures. The Governor declaring a State health emergency, closed the school, etc. Over the next years the EPA and New York health authorities expanded their area of concern to 36 residential blocks, and the Congress became involved in Joint Hearings when chromasomal damage was reported.

    This landmark case led, in the last days of the Carter Administration (1980), to passage of the Superfund (CERCLA) laws. These laws required polluting industries to jointly pay to clean up their own mess and they also set aside government funds for sites where it was impossible to identify the culprits. However it took five years of lax Reagan-Repubican administration before the ATSDR (the agency charged with enforcing these rules) to be funded.

[Love Canal land was later remediated as a new suburb with a new name]

1978 Dr Richard J Kociba a scientist working for Dow Chemicals found overwhelming evidence that 2,3,7,8-TCDD herbicides (which all contained dioxins) were dangerous, and published his report in Applied Pharmacology. Before Love Canal had come to public notice, he had begun a series of three different life-time (2 year) animal studies feeding dioxins to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Kociba found high rates of liver cancer in the female mice (but not the males) and he had microscope slides to prove it. This triggered the scientific scare about dioxins (and later, their cousins, the furans) in herbicides — not just in Agent Orange. Public concerns became exaggerated when the media over-reacted; and this was supplemented by the clumsy and frantic attempts by the chemical companies to throw doubt on their own research.

[Dow Chemicals rejected the Kociba findings. They then hired the 'greenwashing' PR firm, E Bruce Harrison, to run a campaign discounting and confusing the findings. They later challenged Kociba's diagnosis of the cancers by mounting their own 'independent' committee of highly-paid consultants who reviewed the Kociba slides and found fewer 'confirmed' cancers — which is why scientists don't like releasing their basic data; it just fuels the fires of organised attack.].

1978 The first lawsuits are filed against Dow Chemicals and Monsanto over their sloppy production of Agent Orange resulting in Vietnam Veteran's dioxin exposures.

1978 Mar: Eckardt C Beck, the local (Love Canal) Regional administrator for the EPA reported:

I visited the canal area at that time. Corroding waste-disposal drums could be seen breaking up through the grounds of backyards. Trees and gardens were turning black and dying. One entire swimming pool had been had been popped up from its foundation, afloat now on a small sea of chemicals. Puddles of noxious substances were pointed out to me by the residents. Some of these puddles were in their yards, some were in their basements, others yet were on the school grounds. Everywhere the air had a faint, choking smell. Children returned from play with burns on their hands and faces.

    And then there were the birth defects. The New York State Health Department is continuing an investigation into a disturbingly high rate of miscarriages, along with five birth-defect cases detected thus far in the area.

1978 Aug 1: the New York Times front-page article stated:

NIAGARA FALLS, N.Y.—Twenty five years after the Hooker Chemical Company stopped using the Love Canal here as an industrial dump, 82 different compounds, 11 of them suspected carcinogens, have been percolating upward through the soil, their drum containers rotting and leaching their contents into the backyards and basements of 100 homes and a public school built on the banks of the canal.

[Steve Milloy, Michael Gough and other corporate dioxin deniers have since tried to make out that the problems here were minor, and that they were wildly exaggerated by the media.]

1978 Aug 2: The New York Times story triggered action. The next day Dr Robert Whalen, the New York state Commissioner of Health, visited Love Canal and said:

"The Love Canal Chemical Waste Landfill constitutes a public nuisance and an extremely serious threat and danger to the health, safety, and welfare of those using it or exposed to the conditions emanating from it, consisting, among other things, of chemical wastes lying exposed on the surface in numerous places and pervasive, pernicious, and obnoxious chemical vapors and fumes affecting both the ambient air and the homes of certain residents living near such sites."
He issued an order to country health officials to close the school and reduce accessibility to one division of the site ["keep people off"], and to begin health studies. On August 7 he expanded the prohibited area and Governor Carey decided to buy the homes of those who wished to relocate. President Carter also approved emergency financial aid.

    Dr Whalen also convened a Blue-Ribbon Panel, declared a health emergency and ordered the relocation of women and children living in the most contaminated parts of the estate. President Carter then declared a 'State of Emergency' and provided financial aid. By the end of this year workers on the site were undergoing daily monitoring, and over the next three years lawsuits were filed by New York State Attorney against Hooker Corporation and Occidental Petroleum (settled by consent agreement in 1988 and 1989) and the whole area cleared.
    [Multiple Sources]

Carlo is now a staff epidemiologist with SUNY's School of Medicine in Buffalo.

1978 Aug 4: Sep 79: Carlo has given up his job as Teaching Assistant at Roswell Park, SUNY and is now an Epidemiologist at the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine's. Research Program in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    [His C/V says that he was also] Clinical Instructor, State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine.

[Source: George Carlo's C/V dated the end of 1988.]

However one of Carlo's puff pieces says:

Dr Carlo was among the first scientists on the scene at the infamous Love Canal chemical crisis in Niagara Falls, New York in 1978 that led to the Superfund law addressing hazards from abandoned hazardous waste sites.

Carlo's denial of Love Canal involvement...

    Defending himself against charges that he was a consultant to the land developers at Love Canal (and there is no evidence of this) Carlo later wrote:
"I was one of the first consultants to be approached by Lois Gibbs and the other mothers who were concerned about the risk of miscarriages. We helped them put together the study that was later submitted to the State Health Department about health risks. I helped Congressman John LaFalce with the first writings of the Superfund Act that was intended to prevent financial harm to families living on or near abandoned hazardous waste sites and this a direct consequence of the Love Canal work.

    My work was used by Congress because it supported the theory that the chemicals such as Mirex or Kepone were related to cancer. "
[Google turns up no evidence supporting the claim that Carlo's research information was given to Congress, or of any relationship with Congressman LaFalce. However, it could well be true that the University was approached for help by Lois Gibbs, and therefore that he helped the activists.

1978 Dec 14: An EPA press release explains the reasons why they were taking action over toxic chemical waste sites following Love Canal.
EPA would require that hazardous wastes be safely handled and disposed of to protect the public and the environment from possible contamination including safeguards to protect drinking and other underground water supplies, surface water and the air. These wastes include acids, caustics, explosives, and toxic chemicals.

    "Hazardous wastes will be controlled from point of generation to their ultimate disposal, and dangerous practices that are now resulting in serious threats to health and the environment will not be allowed," ([EPA Adminisrator Douglas] Costle said.

    "This hazardous waste program is comprehensive" Costle said. "It will control over 35 million tons of waste. Some 270,000 waste-generating facilities, 10,000 transporters, and 30,000 treatment, storage, and disposal sites will be involved."

    [The] EPA proposed a list of 158 specific wastes it considers hazardous and which would fall under Federal regulation.

This was the origins of the two main Superfund laws
  • CERLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)
  • SARA (Superfund Amendment and Reauthorisation Act) of 1986.
However it took many years of corporate vs. agency battles before anything of significance was passed, and more years before they were activated, and so many of the US science-for-sale entrepreneurs got their start by working on Superfund problems for the chemical companies and producers of hazardous waste.

Military Knowledge of dioxins.
In an affidavit filed on May 1, 1980, Lt. Craig Steele (a hygiene officer in Vietnam) stated:
"I had in my possession written guidelines on Agents Orange, Blue, and Hyvar. These guidelines carried the explicit warnings in bold print that the misuse of these chemicals may result in sterility and/or congenital abnormalities in humans."
These guidelines were in place from day one.

1979 Mar 26: The Three Mile Island incident.
A leak followed by a partial meltdown at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania created the most serious nuclear contamination incident in American history, and probably the best-known in the world before the Ukrainian Chernobyl disaster and Fukijama in Japan. Wikipedia says:
The nuclear power industry claims that there were no deaths, injuries or adverse health effects from the accident, and a report by Columbia University epidemiologist Maureen Hatch agrees with this finding. Another study by Steven Wing of the University of North Carolina found that lung cancer and leukemia rates were 2 to 10 times higher downwind of TMI than upwind.

    The Radiation and Public Health Project, an anti-nuclear organization, reported a spike in infant mortality in the downwind communities two years after the accident.
[In some of his later puff-pieces Carlo claimed to have worked helping the public affected by this accident at that time.]

Carlo now lecturing at the University of Arkansas, Medical Sciences.

1979 Sep: Jun 81: Carlo has transfered from SUNY in Buffalo, back to the University of Arkansas. He was now

  • Assistant Professor, Arkansas. Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sclences, Little Rock.
  • Professor in the Division of Biometry
  • Professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Interdiscipiinary Toxicology.

[Carlo's 1988 C/V]

1979 Oct: The American Department of Health issued a study which had been conducted on the Three Mile Island incident and Carlo claims to have been involved as a consultant.

Much later when challenged about his claimed role in the Three Mile Island incident he wrote:

"The only input I had to the Three Mile Island report was submitting the data from our study showing an increase in infant mortality and stillbirths around the nuclear plant in Russellville, Arkansas. They quoted our data in the report....but they dismissed it as not enough evidence to show a problem."

1979 Oct: This is the delayed publication date for the Carlo/Hogue Nuclear One stillbirth paper. It was only published well after the Three-Mile Island incident.

    Analysis of Infant Deaths and Stillbirths in Pope County, Arkansas. by Carlo GL and Hogue CJ, Arkansas State Department of Health,

1980: Research biologist Beverly J Paigen, who was a senior staffer doing Cancer Research at Roswell Park while Carlo was there, has produced a series of papers on Love Canal [but she doesn't list Carlo as a contributor or co-author]:

  • "Controversy at Love Canal" which was published as a Hastings Center Report, in 1982.
  • "Methods for assessing health risks in populations living near hazardous waste sites" 1983
  • "Assessing the problem — Love Canal," 1983
  • Use of small mammals (voles) to assess a hazardous waste site at Love Canal, 1983
[It is possible that Carlo may have made some minor contributions to early Roswell Park papers before moving to Arkansas in September 1980. ]

1980: The first Agent-Orange class-action lawsuit is filed in Pennsylvania against Dow Chemicals and Monsanto. This is a product liability suit over their sloppy production of Agent Orange resulting in Vietnam Veteran's dioxin exposures. Critical research evidence produced at this trial included:
about 100 articles from toxicology journals dating back more than a decade, as well as data about where herbicides had been sprayed, what the effects of dioxin had been on animals and humans, and every accident in factories where herbicides were produced or dioxin was a contaminant of some chemical reaction.

1980: Carlo says he was Principal Investigator this year on "Birth Cohort Infant Mortality and Environmental Insult in Arkansas Counties," study which was being funded by US Environmental Protection Agency,

[Source: George Carlo's 1988 C/V as sent to the Tobacco Institute]

[We have found no studies which match the above. There is only the Arkansas Health Department study with no mention of the EPA. However, given the recent publication of his Arkansas Nuclear One paper, this could well be true.]

1980: The Superfund Compromise is being floated, This was (initially) a proposal to limit the number of hazardous waste sites that would be cleaned up, but it was amended out of recognition because of public hostility. A Bill extending the Compromise was only passed in Aug 1986 after five years of long and bitter inactivity during (Reagan's First term) See legal outline

    Only six dumps were cleaned up during the first five years of Superfund, and it went into limbo after September 30 1985 when its revenue sources dried up, The new compromise became a Bill for Renewal, which would require the Environmental Protection Agency to identify for future action 1,600 of the nation's worst sites by 1988. [The agency's national priority list was about half that size.]

    The compromise bill also gave citizens living near toxic sites the right to sue polluters to force a cleanup if EPA is not acting against a dump and to require chemical companies to inform communities about emissions of ''acute hazards'' from their plants.]

See US News & World Report article from the 1980s.

1980 May: American Journal of Public Health publishes "Cancer incidence and trihalomethane concentrations in a public drinking water system." by G L Carlo, C J Mettlin

Four thousand two hundred fifty-five cases of esophageal, stomach, colon, rectal, bladder, and pancreatic cancer reported from Erie County, NY between 1973 and 1976 were analyzed in terms of their relationship to type of water source, level of trihalomethane (THM) and various social and economic parameters. Among white males, a significant positive correlation existed between pancreatic cancer incidence rates and THM level. No other significant correlations were observed. This research lends little or no support to the hypothesis that THM levels which meet present standards are related to the incidence of human cancer.

1980 June 6 A Hill & Knowlton Advisory to its clients:
The Justice Department expects to file 100 lawsuits to enforce the cleanup of dangerous hazardous waste disposal sites in 1980. It claims there are from 500 to 600 dumping sites today that could be as much of a threat to public health as Love Canal.
Another report says the National Toxicology Program "had isolated about 200 compounds at the site and was testing 70 of them."

1980 June: /E "Cancer incidence and Trihalomethane concentrations in a Public Drinking Water System", George L. Carlo and Curtis J Mettlin. American Journal of Public health, Vol. 70, No. 5, 1980, PP. 523-524

This research lends little or no support to the hypothesis that THM levels which meet present standards are related to the incidence of human cancer.
[ Trihalomethanes are chlorinated organic molecules — like chloroform and CFCs which damage the ozone layer. Some are known to be carcinogenic. Carlo seems to have repeated this study in 1984.]

This report lists Carlo at the Division of Biometry, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. It says that... "At the time of the study he was with the Research Program in Occupational and Environmental Health, SUNY at Buffalo, New York.
[It doesn't say who funded the study, but Dow Chemicals and other chemical companies were under attack for releasing these chlorine-based compounds into underground acquifers. ]

1980 Jul: Dr Irwin DJ Bross, Carlo's superior when he was at Buffalo, and the Director of Biostatistics at Roswell Park Memorial Institute [ie the name applied to 'Epidemiology' at this time] was attacking the role of the chemical companies in trying to downplay the dangers of dioxins. He wrote to the Washington Star:

Even under the best of circumstances it is hard to do competent scientific studies of health hazards at Love Canal or other chemical (or nuclear) dump sites.

Only a tiny fraction of physicians or scientists have any demonstrated competence in the conduct of such studies and have any record of acting in the public interest in these issues.

    These researchers soon become the targets of well-orchestrated efforts to discredit them, to disparage their findings and to drive them out of research, this has happened at Love Canal, and it has occurred over and over again in the past 25 years. It is one of the main reasons why so little has been done to protect the public against hazardous chemical, nuclear and medical technologies.
Bross also criticised a federal health official who told some women, who had had disastrous pregancies while living at New York's Love Canal, that "the cure was to quit smoking".
    [ Irwin Bross was an anti-smoking crusader was also worked with the famous tobacco researcher Dr Ernst Wynder in an attempt to develop a "less harmful cigarette". [They both advocated a switch to filter cigarettes.] Wynder accepted more and more research funds from the tobacco industry over the years, and he would later become an occasional associate of Carlo, but there's no suggestion that the two were associated at this time.]

1980 Aug: The EPA issues a requirement to all makers of the herbicide 2,4-D to prove the safety of their products. This herbcide was less of a dioxin risk than 2.4,5-T, but both were components of Agent Orange and both had contributed to the dioxin contamination. Under pressure from the EPA, the chemical companies jointly set up the Industry Task Force on 2,4-D Research Data (ITF) and entered into an agrement to produce the requested data for the EPA.

    The 1980 notice required the ITF to conduct oncogenicity (cancer) tests with 2,4-D on both rats and mice (they often react differently). The Task Force eventually submitted the results of completed studies in 1986. By then, the EPA was under a 'more relaxed' administration.

Carlo has been elevated to faculty member at the University of Arkansas
(but apparently also working as an occasional consultant for Dow Chemicals)

1980 Sep: Jun 81 Carlo was a faculty member at the University of Arkansas, Medical Sciences Research Council.
            [George Carlo's 1988 C/V as sent to the Tobacco Institute]

1980 Sep: /E Carlo's "Epidemiology and Toxic Substances" lecture to the State of Arkansas Toxics Public Information Task Force, Fall 1980. [Source 1988 C/V]

1980 Sep 29: US News & World Report carries an article "Chemical Wastes: A Buried Bomshell." Love Canal had triggered a new look at other toxic waste sites.

  • Water wells in Toone, Tenn were contaminated by pesticide wastes leading from a pile 30,000 55-gallon drums. Drums were found buried in a Memphis suburb.
  • The Tennessee Valley Authority estimated that 4,000 tons of DDT remained at the bottom of springs upstream of Triana, Alabama, from manufacturing ten years before. Blood samples from residents were 10 times the normal.
  • A 100 mile stretch of the Arkansas River had been condemned because of dioxin traces. [In Alabama, Carlo had plenty of opportunity to learn about dioxins.]
  • the Justice Department asked a federal court to force eleven big US chemical corporations, including Dow, Allied and Uniroyal, to clean up two dump sites near Baton Rouge.

1980 Oct: - June 1981 Carlo says he was a member of the Toxics Public Information Program, Technical Advisory Committee, State of Arkansas.

    Also he made a presentation on Health Monitoring Around Hazardous Waste Management Facilities. to the Arkansas Federation of Water and Air Users,

[Source 1988 C/V]

1980 Nov: Ronald Reagan is President Elect.

President Carter's "Superfund" clean up legislation [ Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)] was enacted during the Reagan transition period. It provided for an initial $1.6 billion Superfund.

    However the Reagan Administration during 1981 and 1983 tried to load more of these costs back on the industries that had caused the problems in order to balance the Federal Budget. The Administration also delayed the funding of the regulatory agency (ATSDR) which would have Superfund oversight.

    CERCLA gave EPA primary responsibility for identifying, investigating, and cleaning up hazardous waste sites, but the Act also authorized the establishment of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Register (ATSDR) under the Department of Public Health...
to assess the presence and nature of health hazards to communities living near Superfund sites, to help prevent or reduce harmful exposures, and to expand the knowledge base about the health effects that result from exposure to hazardous substances.
However deregulating zealots now controlled all of the political positions in the Reagan White House, and at the main agencies. So nothing happened in real terms until a crisis developed in mid 1983.

1980 Dec 9: The Wall Street Journal article "Looking at the Way We Die" was one of the first open media attacks on the cigarette industry by a major newspaper. It says:

The overall age-adjusted increase in lung cancer in 1978 was 3.2%, while for white women the increase was a whopping 7.7%. The figures seem to speak for themselves. Insofar as the rate of cancer deaths in this country is rising, the single largest factor is the vast increase in cigaret smoking by white women over the past generation.

    In comparison, the increase in 1978 death rate from lung cancer for white males was only 1.8%, while the increases were even smaller for non-white males and females. Aside from lung cancer, in 1978 deaths from all other major forms of cancer either declined or remained the same.

    The public health implications of these official government data would seem unmistakable. The most effective way to combat future increases in cancer deaths would be an all-out campaign against cigarets. The danger to American lives, posed by smoking is far greater than from asbestos, saccharin, the exhaust of chemical factories, the emanations from dumping grounds of chemical waste like the Love Canal, etc.

[It wasn't difficult to see which industries provided opportunities for a budding science-for-sale entrepreneur.]

1981: (Carlo Primary Investigator), "Cross-Sectional Study of Employees with Potential Workplace Exposure to Ethylene Oxide," Carlo was still on the faculty of the Arkansas University, but now working on the side for Dow Chemical Company,

[Source: George Carlo's 1988 C/V as sent to the Tobacco Institute]

1981: The Agent Orange herbicide used in Vietnam became serious news early in the Reagan Administration. Before this time the main concern with dioxins had been from industrial exposures.

    Agent Orange herbicide was a combination essentially of two other herbicides 2,4,5,-T and 2,4-D, and it was shown to be seriously contaminated with dioxins [due to lack of care during manufacture]. The returned servicemen maintained that they were having residual serious health impacts and higher rates of birth defects in their children. There was also an Agent Blue used in Vietnam which didn't give the same problems (but it did confuse the scientific issue).

    The Veterans Administration and the Department of Defence generally ridiculed these claimsx... until an OTA Advisory Panel under direction from Congress, a couple of scientific Task Forces, and a dozen or so other formal and informal scientific study groups began to investigate the vets' claims. They all fingered dioxins as the likely culprit — especially when gross deformities among Vietnamese babies began to show up on the front pages.

ATSDR Superfund legislation

    One of Carlo's puff pieces says about this period:
He was integral in writing the enabling legislation that established the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) within the Department of Health and Human Services, a primary group addressing the effects of environmental contaminants.
These ATSDR laws passed in 1980, but were suppressed during most of the first Reagan term between 1981 and 1983 — so nothing much happened at this time.

    Only in the approach to Reagan's second term — after the Secretary of the Interior James Watt had been fired, and the EPA Administrator Anne Gorsuch (Burford) and twenty of her top staff had been forced to resign over non-enforcement scandals — did the Reagan administration take this problem seriously.

[ As an Assistant Professor in Arkansas, Carlo does not register in the dioxin literature from this period, so his claim to have written the ATSDR legislation is dubious... to say the least]

CDC on Toxic Exposure Prevention   ATSDR on dioxins  

1981 Feb: A discussion paper presented at the Toxicology Forum Winter Meeting by Kimmel C, Carlo G, Hogue C and Holson J: Suitability of Animal Models for Predicting Hazards to Human Development.
[Probably nothing to do with Dow since Carol Hogue is also involved. ]

1981 Apr: Carlo published a paper on "Routine Surveillance of Reproductive Events" which had been presented to the Department of Health (DHES) on behalf of the Dow Chemical Company,

Carlo is now on the staff of Dow Chemical Company
but still an Adjunct Professor (Occasional Lecturer)
University of Arkansas, Medical Sciences..

1981 June: June 82: Carlo says he was Adjunct Professor, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas. during this year. His C/V shows that he was also the Research Leader In Epidemiology with the US Area Medical Department of Dow Chemical USA from early 1981 thru May 1984:

[George Carlo's 1988 C/V as sent to the Tobacco Institute]

1981 Jul: Carlo paper, "An Epidemic of Cancer? The Evidence in Perspective," presented to the Department of Health on behalf of the Dow Chemical Company,

1981 Aug - end 1988: The Agent Orange problem had blown up with the Vietnam Veterans. The US Air Force, the Veterans Administration and the Military were all stalling and actively colluding with the chemical companies to discount any possibility that the dioxins in Agent Orange were responsible for the Post-Traumatic Syndrome or for the birth defects in Veteran's childrens.

    Eventually the Vets forced the US Congress to create a research program with 'independent oversight', and Congress turned to the bipartisan Office of Technological Assessment.

    This panel was generally independent, consisting mainly of academics — but there were also three chemical company representatives, one from each of the main manufacturers — including Dow Chemicals. Carlo claims in his 1988 C/V that he was...
On the committee of the Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress, Agent Orange Advisory Panel.

At a later time Carlo says that
From 1984 thorugh 1992, I sat on the US Congress's Office of Technology Assessment's Agent Orange Advisory Panel. We were responsible for the changes at the Veterans Administration that resulted in compensation being given to Vietnam veterans for chloracne, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, Hodgkins disease and leukemia.

    I worked closely with representatives from the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the Vietnam Veterans of America to get that done. I was one of their most vociferous supporters on the panel.

    The Advisory Panel merely advised the OTA on how epidemiology studies on dioxins should be conducted. This was not an easy matter when there were little or no exposure records.

    The OTA Advisory Panel did not conducting studies itself, nor were they evalating results, nor advising veterans, nor advising on the toxicity or mutagenicity of dioxins.
    The Agent Orange Study Protocol Review Advisory Panel (report to Congress in both 1981 and 82) listed Carlo as member working for the Health & Environmental Sciences division of Dow Chemicals
George L. Carlo, Epidemiology, Health and Environmental Sciences, Dow Chemical USA.
[He was later to use the Health & Environmental Sciences name for his first science-for-sale company]

Dioxin friends
In these Agent Orange panel years he met two other scientists who would later figure strongly in his life:
  • Dr Michael LeVois, another epidemiologist working at this time for the Veterans Administration,
          LeVois briefly became Carlo's employee, then a partner in HES on a Philip Morris project. He then moved to San Francisco and worked for the tobacco industry for the rest of his life in semi-partnership with another science-for-sale entrepreneur, Max Layard.

  • Dr Michael Gough was the dioxin study administrator for the Office of Technical Assessments (OTA) when they examined the complaints of the veterans.
          Gough later moved on to a career supporting corporations with environmental and health problems through Republican/libertarian think-tanks: the Cato Iinstitute, Competitive Enterprises Institute, TASSC etc.,
          In 1990, he provided Carlo with back-up in a Melbourne (Aust) dioxin water contamination scandal.
          Gough was also a close associate of Steve Milloy who ran TASSC and the junkscience.com web site for Philip Morris [Carlo was on the TASSC Advisory Board]. Milloy was also involved with the CEI and the Cato Institute and used both as fronts for tobacco projects.

1981 Aug 19: A meeting of the Veterans Administration (VA), Air Force, Office of Technical Assessment staff, and some (presumably independent) research scientists and administrators [Carlo is not mentioned] meet to thrash out the reason for their continuing disputes about the dangers of dioxins and the health problems of the returned Veterans.

    The spokesman for the VA announced:

I am pleased to announce that the Research and Development arm of the VA Central Office has recently taken steps to launch a series of studies designed to investigate the possible long-term health effects of exposure to Agent Orange and Agent Blue.

    Specifically, Research and Development (R&D) is soliciting proposals from VA investigators on the biochemical, toxicological, physiological and/or pharmacological aspects of both herbicides.
[It is obvious that they have been in denial... then spent time stumbling around in the dark. They had major problems because of a lack of basic Vietnam exposure information.]
  • "We cannot even complete the design of the overall epidemiological study until we know what we can do in the way of separating the cohorts".[ie identfying exposed and unexposed veterans]
  • "We're now in the ninth and final month of a nine-month contract to collect the worldwide literature on all of the fourteen herbicides that were used in Vietnam, to compile an annotated bibliography of the science, the state of knowledge we have about the herbicides, and then to write a narrative report on our best scientific judgement of what this all means."
  • We have collected what data there are on each of the industrial accidents [dioxin spills.. and the report] would have a table, a chart that would track the location of the accident, the year it occurred, the chemicals released, the duration of exposure, the organ systems effected — dermal, liver, whatever was reported —and then the reference articles that talked about that industrial accident,
  • They planned and organised the 1st International Symposium on Chlorinate Dioxins in Arlington VA 25-29 October 1981
    [However to prevent embarrasment, they pretended that the symposium was mainly about waste management]
  • The Ranch Hand Study is a 20-year (prospective) epidemiological study of the Air Force personnel (1,200 in total) who flew herbicide orange missions in Vietnam in the years 1962 to 1970.
    [Noted: the pilots probably wouldn't or may not have exposure as compared to those who handle the materials [on the ground].

[Warning: This is a 600 page document]  

1981 Sep: Carlo GL and Cook RR: Comments Prepared for the Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States, regarding "Draft Protocol for Epidemiological Studies of Agent Orange." [Not on web]

1981 Nov Congress had recently enacted a law which increased public funding for Veterans Administration hospitals. It was now able to provide treatment for "Agent Orange-related diseases". This, and years of vilification about their lack of support for the Vets, appears to have changed the VA's attitude to dioxin research.

1982 The National Toxicology Program (NTP) published results of a cancer bioassay for 2,3,7,8-TCDD herbicide (the major component of Agent Orange).

    An increase in liver tumors was observed at 71 ng/kg-day in female rats and in mice. A decrease in cancer rate was observed in animals receiving lower doses.

[This is a minute dosage in comparison to other toxic chemicals. Also dose-related responses were considered highly significant in toxicology.]

1982: Published study — Plomer JJ and Carlo GL: The Health Effects of Ozone: An Overview of the Scientific Literature. A Dow CRI Report,

[CRI probably refers to "Common Representative Intermediates" which act as catalysts to convert volitile chemicals into ozone reactors (in other words, 'secondary effects' chlorinated compounds on ozone depletion). This basic library study was probably done for Dow Chemicals which manufactured the CFCs which were implicated in attacking the ozone layer.]

With Dow Chemical's 'issues division" — Health and Environmental Sciences.
also part-time lecturer with his old State University of New York in Buffalo

1982 Jan: to end 1988 George Carlo's 1988 C/V as sent to the Tobacco Institute says that during this period he was a member of the Adjunct Faculty, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, Graduate Division, State University of New York at Buffalo.

1982 Jan: - Feb 1984 Carlo is a member of the Louisiana Chemical Association Cancer Task Force. [Source: Carlo's 1988 C/V as sent to the Tobacco Institute.]

    With other associates, he prepares a number of papers on Louisiana Cancer rates:

  • A Vital Status Registry and General Mortality Survey for the Louisiana Division of Dow Chemical USA: Dow Chemical Company, 1982.
  • Development of a Morbidity Reporting System and Cancer Registry for the Louisiana Division of Dow Chemical USA. Dow Chemical Company, 1982. (Carlo Primary Investigator)
  • The Louisiana Cancer Controversy: Some Scientific Perspectives. Louisiana Medical Journal. March 1983.

1982 Jan: May 84 He is also a member of the Chemical Manufacturers Association's Ethylene Oxide Industry Council, Epidemiology Committee.

    The EOIC was established in Sept 1981 and its Epidemiology Committee in 1982 to coordinate the industry evidence before hearings of both the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Ethylene Oxide was moderately carcinogenic. [Source: 1988 C/V]

1982 May: Feb 84 In his 1988 C/V Carlo claims to have been a committee member with a number of Chemical Manufacturers Association research and/or lobby groups.

  • Air Pollutant Effects Task Group (as Leader),
  • Ozone Health Effects Work Group (Member),
  • Government Research Work Group (Member).

[Source 1988 C/V]

In the same period [until June 1983] George Carlo was also a member of the American Industrial Health Council (AIHC) — Scientific Principles of Causality Subcommittee which would have focussed on disproving claims of chemical causality.

The AIHC was the lobby subsidiary of the Chemical Manufacturers Association which had been established by Elizabeth Whelan before she established the architypal astroturf known as the American Council on Science & Health (ACSH) for the food and chemical industry.

1982 Dec 3 and 14, Contempt of Congress proceedings against Environmental Protection Agency administrator Anne M. Gorsuch. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, results early the following year in the forced resignation of 20 of the top EPA staff, including John A Todhunter, Assistant Administrator for Pesticides and Toxic Subtances.

"Dow Chemical's Flying Circus"
1983: One later tobacco industry memo [August 1992] to Betsy Annese, (the head of Government and Public Relations at RJ Reynolds Tobacco) shows that Carlo was seen by the propagandists at Dow Chemicals as a valuable employee.

    This memo is from Matt Swetonic [famous as the front-man for Johns Manville Asbestos,] who was also as an external PR consultant for Dow Chemicals working through E Bruce Harrison (EBH) Co. and Hill & Knowlton. In this later memo he wrote :
As we have already discussed, yesterday I met in Washington with George Carlo, head of the Health & Environmental Sciences Group, a DC based health sciences consulting firm.

    I have known Carlo since 1983, when he was part of my "flying circus" of Dow scientists touring the country talking about the Agent Orange issue. As recently as three or four years ago [ie 1988-89], he had a working relationship with EBH doing joint projects for various chemical industry clients.

    In short, we know Carlo very well and, as a result, he was quite open and candid in the meeting.

    The [Carlo - HES] study you sent me from Risk Analysis [journal] was funded through the Institute for Regulatory Policy which, as you know, has been the lead group trying to pressure the White House to release the Executive Order on risk assessment reform.

[This is a 1992 reference to a fake 'Bias study' done by Carlo for Philip Morris, and laundered for media-release by the Tozzi -Auchter think-tank known as Institute for Regulatory Policy (IRP)

    The IRP had been founded and funded for Philip Morris, and Auchter later became a secret partner in Carlo's HES and WTR operations. ]

Over the years Matt Swetonic worked for asbestos, pesticide and tobacco companies, mainly through the front of E Bruce Harrison Co.. He established and operated a number of 'grassroots' (astroturf) disinformation organisations (NEDA/TIAQ, Asbestos Information Service, etc).

    The E Bruce Harrison Company was a specialty anti-environmentalist lobbying front which was originally owned by Harrison and his wife Patricia. It was set up with the support of the Chemical Manufacturers' Association to counter Rachael Carson's book 'The Silent Spring.'

    EBH was then briefly owned by Ruder-Finn, then by Hill & Knowlton, perhaps by Burson-Marsteller, and later by The Dilenschneider Group Inc. in New York. It appears to have been made available to any large PR group that needed a 'greenwashing' front.

1983: Carlo has published a report "An Assessment of Clinical Laboratory Test Reference Limits". done for the Dow Chemical Company.

1983 Mar: The Journal of the Louisiana State Med Society published The Louisiana cancer controversy: some scientific perspectives. by G L Carlo, M F Currier, K J Flanagan

The scandals of a do-nothing Reagan EPA culminated in the weeks 9-to-25 March 1983 with the resignation of administrator Anne Gorsuch-Burford, John A Todhunter (over dioxins), John Hernandez (over lead), Rita Lavelle (Superfund cleanup), Robert M Perry (General Counsel), and 15 other high-ranking EPA officials; "Taking the axe for the Reagan Administration".

1983 Mar 25: Following the March 25 1983 resignation of the EPA Administrator Anne Gorsuch Burford the EPA became paralysed by on-going scandals.

    The first term of the Reagan Presidency was consumed by public rage at the lack of any reasonable regulatory activity by the Federal Government agencies, mostly because they were stimied by the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), which was part of the White House's Office of Managment & Budget (OMB).

    Over this five-to-six year period, a group of about 20 top EPA officials were forced to progressively resign... mostly because they sought to block measures to clean up toxic waste dumps under the Superfund laws, but some through obvious corporate bribery.
    [The OIRA was run by Jim Tozzi who excelled in blocking any meaningful regulatory activity by the main agencies. Tozzi later helped establish the lobby group MBS /Federal Focus Inc, and in the 1990s he joined forces with Thorne Auchter and George Carlo in a number of ventures for Philip Morris and the cellphone industry. Tozzi's staff at the OIRA also left the White House at the end of the Reagan Presidency to set up the EOP Group, which lobbied for the tobacco and chemical industries with Steve Milloy and Bonner Cohen (both associates of Carlo also).]

1983 April 19: While the 1980 CERCLA Act gave Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) primary responsibility for identifying, investigating, and cleaning up hazardous waste sites, it also authorized the establishment of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Register (ATSDR) to assess the presence and nature of health hazards to communities living near Superfund sites, to help prevent or reduce harmful exposures, and to expand the knowledge base about the health effects that result from exposure to hazardous substances.

    After two years of Reagan Administration stalling, the ATSDR was created as an agency under the Department of Health and Human Services on April 19, 1983

Reagan Administration regulatory resignations
  • James G Watt the Secretary of the Interior (resigned Nov 1983)
  • Anne Gorsuch Burford the head of the EPA (resigned Mar 1983)
  • Thorne Auchter the Director of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), — later both Tozzi and Carlo's partner (resigned Mar 1984)
  • Jim Tozzi the head of the Reagan White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OMB/OIRA), — both an Auchter and a Carlo partner — (resigned May 1983)
  • Rita Lavelle, EPA Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response (ie Superfund). She was jailed in 1984 for perjury during a Congress hearing into corruption in her agency division.
  • John Todhunter, EPA Administrator and Head of Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (fired in 1983)
  • Eighteen others were forced to, or chose to, resign.
Four young budget examiners working for Tozzi in the OMB.OIRA's environmental branch also chose to leave shortly after (during the Bush Administration).

The creation of the EOP Group lobbyfirm:
[In White House-speak EOP = Executive Office of the President]

Michael O'Bannon and Ernest Robson initially joined Tozzi's lobby shop (MBS), but they left in 1992. Later they joined with Joseph Hezir, David Gibbons and Assistant Secretary of Energy, Jan Mares, to open the EOP Group — the only lobby firm besides Tozzi's to specialize in lobbying the OMB.
  • Michael O'Bannon - from Dept of Interior and OIRA (joined Tozzi in MBS, then left to manage the EOP Group)
  • Ernest Robins - OIRA (joined Tozzi's MBS and then the EOP Group)
  • Joseph Hezir - OMB/OIRA (joined EOP Group)
  • David Gibbons - OIRA (joined EOP Group)
  • Jan Mares - Assistant Secretary of Energy, - (brought in later to front the EOP Group)
  • Jonathon Gledhill - OMB & OIRA (later joined EOP Group)

1983 July 15: Environmental Health Letter. The EPA is adding another 100 to 150 Waste Sites to its Cleanup list.

Setting a breakneck pace for itself after a year of two of dawdling, EPA says it now expects by Aug. 1 to designate 100 to 150 new hazardous waste dump sites for priority cleanup.

    EPA is preparing to set a time limit, most likely two months, for negotiations with industry to determine how cleanup costs will be divided between industry and government, according to William N. Hedeman, Jr., director of the Superfund program.

[On leaving the OIRA/OMB, Jim Tozzi had initially joined the legal-lobby firm, Beveridge & Diamond as a "consulting economist". B&D was run by the ex-EPA Administrator William Ruckelhaus and it provided legal counsel services to Dow Chemical. It also lobbied on behalf of the Chemical Manufacturing Association and its American Industrial Health Council (AIHC)..

    Tozzi left B&D in 1986 to set up Multinational Business Services (MBS) and Federal Focus Inc with ex-OSHA director Thorne Auchter.— hosever they obviously maintained an on-going relationship with Beveridge & Diamond.

    Tozzi was replaced at B&D by William Hedeman the director of the Superfund program who also sat on the OTA Advisory Panel with Carlo. The EPA Watch newsletter at the time said that Hedeman "leaves EPA to join Beveridge & Diamond, [and] Mulitnational Business Services" ]

1983 Sep: Carlo presented a lecture on "The Health Effects of Chlorinated Dioxins," to Department of Epidemiology, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

1983 Oct: Dow Chemical Company stopped making the main dioxin-containing herbicide 2,3,5-T while contending that
"the great weight of scientific evidence confirms that 2,4,5-T can be used safely without undue risk to people or the environment."
They continued to manufacture other dioxin-containing herbicides.

1983 Nov: Carlo gives a lecture on "Epidemiological Studies of Chlorinated Dioxins: An Overview" to a Roswell Park Memorial Institute Occupational Epidemiology Symposium.

1983: North Carolina Medical Journal published "The question of a cancer epidemic: a case study of Cherokee County, North Carolina" by G L Carlo, R R Cook, M G Ott

1984: Publication of a report "Cancer incidence and Trihalomethane concentrations in a Public Drinking Water System", by George L. Carlo. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 74, No. 5, 1984, PP. 479-484

[This is a repeat of a similar paper done in 1980. Trihalomethanes are chlorinated organic molecules like chloroform and CFCs which damage the ozone layer. Some are known to be carcinogenic. Ironically, this study was used by scaremongering companies flogging water purifiers many years later. ]

Miracle Water General

1984: The Pennsylvanian class-action filed against Dow Chemicals and Monsanto over their sloppy production of Agent Orange resulting in Vietnam Veteran's dioxin exposures, was settled for $180 million out of court — leaving many Vietnam Vets stranded.

    This settlement meant that a totally disabled Veteran would receive a maximum of $12,000 spread over ten years. However he would be prohibited for accessing normal government pensions and services during this time. If he died, his widow would get only a couple of thousand dollars.

Carlo registers George Carlo & Associates, Inc in the tax haven of Deleware.
He is still working for Dow Chemicals.

1984 Jan: Feb 1988 In the C/V presented to the Tobacco Institute when he began touting for tobacco industry work, Carlo lists:

EXPERIENCE — January 1984 to Feb 88
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of George Carlo & Associates, Inc.

1984 Feb: Along with three other Dow Chemical researchers he had submited an article to the American Journal of Epidemiology on the chemical exposure of workers involved in manufacture. It is published more than a year later as "Mortality among employees engaged in chemical manufacturing and related activities."

    It only studied men employed before 1969 (before the dioxin problem) and concluded that no problems could be ascribed to "identifiable environmental factors"

Overall mortality in the study group and in each of eight employment subgroups was less than that of the corresponding United States white male population. Additionally, standardized mortality ratios were not significantly elevated for any of the examined cause-of-death categories.

1984 Feb 25: The Telegraph newspaper publishes 'Reassuring' Study on Agent Orange Intensifies Dispute."

The US Air Force had just released their "Operation Ranch-Hand" study into cancers and birth problems with (mainly) air-force pilots who ran spraying missions in Vietnam [Note: not the actual handlers of the chemicals — nor the Vietnamese and Cambodians who lived in the drenched environment, eating sprayed food crops.] The report said that

"the veterans, who were sometimes doused with the herbicide, are not suffering from major diseases at any unusually high rates but they — and their offspring — have some hard-to-explain health problems that must be watched.

Dr George Carlo, a scientist at Dow Chemical Co., which manufactured some of the Agent Orange, said the results "should be viewed as reassuring" but said they "underscore the need for further study of the overall Vietnam experience".
The Airforce's "Ranch-Hand I" study is generally rejected by the scientific community as highly dubious. It was also rejected by Congress.

Carlo re-writes history
In referring to this period of his life, Carlo was later charged by some critics as having...
"defended Dow Corning (sic) over Agent Orange." [The critic's meant Dow Chemicals, not Dow Corning]
He replied saying...
"Makes no sense. Dow Corning had nothing to do with Agent Orange. But, from 1984 through 1992, I sat on the US Congress's Office of Technology Assessment's Agent Orange Advisory Panel.

    We were responsible for the changes at the Veterans Administration that resulted in compensation being given to Vietnam Veterans for chloracne, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, Hodgkins disease and leukemia.

    I worked closely with representatives from the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the Vietnam Veterans of America to get that done. I was one of their most vociferous supporters on the panel. Again, your folks have it backward."

[The collective 'we' refers to the panel, not necessarily to individual members. Dow Chemicals was one of the key defendents (along with Monsanto), since their companies made the herbicides (20 million gallons), and it was sloppy manufacturing processes which generated the dioxins. The herbicide companies each had one representive on the Agent Orange panel, and Carlo represented Dow.

Even as late as April 1993, the Department of Veterans Affairs had only compensated 486 Agent Orange victims, although it had received disability claims from 39,419 soldiers who had been exposed to Agent Orange while serving in Vietnam. This is not a record to boast about. ]

See Wikipedia on Agent Orange  

Carlo leaves Dow Chemical in May 1984.
George Carlo & Associates, Inc is his first 'research and advisory' firm.

[There is another Carlo's C/V which says that he started his own science-entrepreneurial advisory service in 1985.]

Cellular Telephones
The mass marketing of analog cellular phones (mainly car-mounted) began at about this time. And since these were specialized consumer products, the Congress passed laws so that the cellphone makers did not need to subject them to pre- or post-market testing for potential health effects.

    The cellphone industry responded to this exemption by avoiding any health-effects research for a decade, even though [in the words of one later critic] "this was the first time in history that millions of people put small microwave ovens up to the side of their heads for long periods in every day."

1985: Carlo's later close associate, Ian Munro [his deputy at Wireless Technology Research (WTR) in 1993 and other collaborative operations] became a co-founder of a science-for-sale operation called Cantox in Canada.

[Carlo and Munro, and their companies Health & Environmental Sciences and Cantox, worked closely together on numerous projects over the years on dioxins, second-hand tobacco smoke, cellular phone radiation and oil company environmental impact statements. ]

1985: Published research paper by Vena JE, Sultz HA, Fiedler RC, Barnes RE and Carlo GL: Mortality of a Municipal Worker Cohort: I.Males. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 7:241-252, 1985.
[This was a study of the dioxin exposures of incinerator workers: various waste products produce dioxins when burned. Carlo is later listed as working as the key scientific lobbyist for the incinerator industry.]

1985 Mar: The Annual Report to Congress of the Office of Technical Assessment (OTA) Advisory Panel says it was advising the OTA on the protocols (techniques) that should be used for a proper Agent Orange study.

    Earlier Veterans Administration (VA) and Air Force studies had been superficial wastes of time, and so the OTA's involvement had been mandated by Congress to provide some independent oversight on future studies.

    He is one of 14 names on the Agent Orange Study Protocol Review Advisory Panel and now listed as an

George L Carlo
George Carlo & Associates.
rather than as a representative of Dow Chemicals.

[Note: The OTA's Health Program at this time was only in the initial stages of evaluating the Agent Orange study protocol and the OTA had a number of other committees providing advice on different aspects of the Agent Orange problem.Carlo's name doesn't turn up on any other OTA report, as far as we can ascertain, however his friend and later associate, Michael Gough is listed as a Senior Associate on the OTA's Special Projects staff.]

    Carlo's biog claims that
"he served for 10 years on the US Congress' Office of Technology Assessment Agent Orange Advisory Panel, providing advice to Vietnam Veteran's suffering from the effects of the dioxin-laced defoliant program.
[The Panel did not "provide advice to Veterans" in any way, shape or form.]

1985 Mar 25: Elizabeth Whelan's American Council on Science & Health (ACSH) has been set up to provide an 'independent lobby for the chemical and process foods industry.

    The ACSH newsletter has run a major story on the possibility that Reye Syndrome might be caused by asprin (salicytate). It admited that the research established some statistical links, especially where the child has influenza or a disease like chicken-pox. But then the article throws cold-water on these findings by spelling out many ways that epidemiological studies can be distorted...without actually saying that these potential defects had acted in these cases.

    This is a classical piece of public relations double-speak.
[ The Surgeon General had recommended that the drug asprin be avoided for young children — and this recommendation still holds in 2012

    Whelan and ACSH worked for Chemical and Food companies. For the ACSH to be involved in this defence, the pharmacuetical companies must have been splashing money around.]

[The ACSH report says that the US Public Health Service was planning a major study on asprin-Reye link "during the next flu season", but "The study is not expected for two to four years, with additional time required to analyse the data." This gave the Aspirin producers time to mount their own study. Carlo did one such study.]

1985 Apr: - May 86:. Carlo's 1988 C/V says that during this period he was

Research Associate,
State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine.
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine
[He must have had a year-long contract with the University in Buffalo. Four months later he was employing another epidemiologist, Maurice LeVois, as his company's Research Director.]

1985 July: The American Journal of Industrial Medicine publishes a study of the mortality of municipal employees of the City of Buffalo: Mortality of a municipal worker cohort with Carlo as one of five researchers. He is credited as being from George Carlo & Associates, not from the University.

[This is too early to have been the SUNY Research Associate work.]

1985 Aug: Published studies:

  • GL Carlo, GG Bond, MG Ott, S Steinberg (all of Dow Chemicals.) Mortality Experience of Employees Involved in Chemical Manufacturing and Related Activities. American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 122, No. 2, August 1985.
    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among men employed for one or more years, between 1940 and 1969, at an operating division of a large chemical company. Vital status follow-up for the cohort of 1,919 men was determined through 1979 and identified 390 deaths.

        Overall mortality in the study group and in each of eight employment subgroups was less than that of the corresponding United States white male population. Additionally, standardized mortality ratios were not significantly elevated for any of the examined cause-of-death categories.
  • Carlo, GL, Miller, MK: Health Surveillance Around Hazardous Waste Sites: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Cancer Mortality. Contract study report, Chemical Manufacturers Association, August 1985.
    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on 11,499 full-time municipal employees of the City of Buffalo, New York, who were employed at least one day between January 1, 1950 and October 1, 1979 and worked a minimum of five years. This paper outlines the method of the study and presents the all cause and cause-specific mortality for the male cohort of 10,128.

        Statistically significant deficits in mortality are seen for infectious diseases, diseases of the circulatory system, diseases of the respiratory system, and all external causes. Statistically significant increased mortality is seen for both malignant and benign neoplasms. All cause mortality was significantly lower than expected for professional, manager, and clerical workers.

Maruice LeVois joins George Carlo & Associates as its 'Research Director'.
The address was a house at 701 West Park Ave, Falls Church, Virginia.

1985 Aug: Maurice LeVois became Research Director of George Carlo & Associates for two years, until August 1987 when they established Health & Environmental Services.

    LeVois's own background was as a maths teacher who joined the Veterans Administration, Agent Orange Research Office (at the time it was under attack for its inaction). He then briefly worked as a statistician for the Center for Disease Control on Agent Orange study protocols and AIDS, and then for the Red Cross.

    LeVois, in his own C/V to the tobacco companies, lists himself as:

"Principal Investigator on government and industry epidiemiological research projects [and[ health survey research activities."

1985 Sept 18: Meeting notes of the Chemical Manufacturers Association in Washington carries a report from the Health and Safety Committee:

L. Ramonas will provide committee members a copy of G. Carlo's paper on Health Related Authorities Under CERCLA.
[L Ramonas was a part-time staff member for the CMA]

    [Later in document]
Analysis of Health Related Authorities Under CERCLA [The Superfund law]
    The committee approved $4,200 in research and consulting funds for George Carlo Associates to prepare a analysis of health related authorities under CERCLA with recommendations for follow-up.

1985 Sep 29: George Carlo is a keynote speaker at a symposium "The Epidemiologist in Court" at a Santa Monica meeting of the American College of Epidemiologiy. The speakers consisted of two epidemiologists (Carlo and Paul Stolley) and a number of lawyers/judges; its focus was on 'tort law' (product liability) - Agent Orange, asbestos, swine-flu vaccine, tampons and pharmacueticals.

1985 Oct 16: Meeting of the CMA's Health and Safety Committee in Washington shows that George Carlo, of George Carlo & Associates was present as a guest. (part-time) It doesn't carry any other information.

1985 Nov: Publication of Carlo GL: Health Surveillance As It Applies to the Hazardous Waste Issue: Conceptual Overview and Assessment. A contracted study report for the Chemical Manufacturers Association.
[Note minor change in title and MK Miller's name no longer on the citation. (see August 1985 above)]

1986 Admiral Elmo Zumwalt (ex Chief of Naval Operations in Vietnam) begins to champion the VA case against Agent Orange exposure after his Vietnam-exposed son died of Hogkins disease & lymphoma. He also had a severly disabled grandson, This public exposure forces the VA and the US Military to begin taking the problem seriously.

Phantom university position
1986 One of Carlo's C/V claims that he was an "Adjuct Faculty Member" of the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences in this year.

[We can find no evidence of this. However for many years he was closely associated with Professor Philip Witorsch on the Tobacco Institute's Scientific Witness Team, and Witorsch was with this Medical School.]

1986: published paper by Carlo GL: Implementation of Intervention Components of Multi-disciplinary Health Surveillance: Selected Disease Specific Models for Estimating Costs. Contracted study report for the Chemical Manufacturers Association,

1986 Mar 19: The Chemical Manufacturer's Association (CMA) ran a workshop on "Attributable Risk Determination for Waste Sites" with a presentation by Dr George Carlo of Carlo and Associates.

Attendees focused their attention on applying attributable risk to waste site health assessments. This application is particularly important to industry in light of proposed Superfund legislation that would mandate the conduct of studies to assess risk in areas near waste sites.

1986 Apr: /E The Chemical Manufacturers Association's President's address. They are relying on Reagan Administration support.

Superfund conferees have been meeting regularly to try to construct a compromise as the May 31 deadline of the short-term extension fast approaches.

    EPA could begin experiencing another financial crisis for the program since it is not expected that the funding mechanism issue will be resolved before this deadline. Few [Congress] conferees appear interested in approving another short-term extension. [snip]

Population Attributable Risk Workshop.
    The Health and Safety Committee's Health Programs Task Group sponsored an "Attributable Risk Determination for Waste Sites" Workshop on March 19, 1986. Attendees focused their attention on applying attributable risk to waste site health assessments. This application is particularly important to industry in light of proposed Superfund legislation that would mandate the conduct of studies to assess risk in areas near waste sites.

    The workshop included presentations by the following noted epidemiologists:
  • Dr Donald Austin, California Department of Health Services;
  • Dr George Carlo, Carlo and Associates;
  • Dr Clark Heath, South Carolina Bureau of Preventive Health Services;
  • Dr David Lilienfeld, University of Minnesota.

1986 May - end 1988 Carlo claims in his 1988 CV to be concurrently:
  • Clinical Assistant Professor State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine.
  • Assistant Professorial Lecturer in Medicine, George Washington University, School of Medicine and Health
  • the principle of George Carlo & Associates

1986 June: Presentation at the Chemical Manufacturers Association Symposium on Measures of Risk: Attributable Risk Under the Health Assessment Framework of Superfund by Carlo GL, LeVois ME, and Doemland ML.

1986 Aug: The Superfund Compromise was passed in Aug 1986 after five years of long and bitter inactivity during (Reagan's First term)

    Only six dumps had been cleaned up during the first five years of Superfund, and so the original legislation and budget had gone into limbo after September 30 1985 when its revenue sources dried up, The Bill for Renewal required the Environmental Protection Agency to identify for future action, 1,600 of the nation's worst sites by 1988. [The agency's national priority list was about half that size.]

    The compromise bill also gave citizens living near toxic sites the right to sue polluters to force a cleanup if EPA is not acting against a dump, and to require chemical companies to inform communities about emissions of ''acute hazards'' from their plants.

1986 Aug 20: CMA Health and Safety Committee meeting report:

R. Condray convened the meeting at 9:00 a.m.

    The committee approved the minutes of the July 16 meeting and noted that the committee had approved up to $10,000 in outside services funds for George Carlo and Associates to prepare Superfund Conference Committee report language for Section 104(i) of CERCLA.

[1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act — the Superfund Bill]

1986 Sep: Maurice LeVois and George Carlo published Expanding the Interface Between Epidemiology and, the Law: A Model for Settlement of Toxic Torts. American Journal of Epidemiology September 1986.

1986 Oct 17: Congress passed the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) which amended the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for toxic waste dumps. It

  • stressed the importance of permanent remedies and innovative treatment technologies in cleaning up hazardous waste sites;
  • required Superfund actions to consider the standards and requirements found in other State and Federal environmental laws and regulations;
  • provided new enforcement authorities and settlement tools;
  • increased State involvement in every phase of the Superfund program;
  • increased the focus on human health problems posed by hazardous waste sites;
  • encouraged greater citizen participation in making decisions on how sites should be cleaned up; and
  • increased the size of the trust fund to $8.5 billion.
At this time the EPA set the priorities, however it was the ATSDR which ran the Superfund, and it had a "widespread credibility problem." according to many commentators. One of Carlo's C/Vs says he was consulted by a Congressional committee on SARA also.

    At a much later (Sep 14 1994) Congressional hearing on the Superfund Reform Act Carlo's lawyer and co-author, James Baller, presented a paper on behalf of Carlo, Kelly Sund and himself. They were opposed to the idea that the Superfund authority might be transfered from the weak ATSDR to the EPA. Baller claims:
Dr Carlo, in fact, was one of the principal draftsmen of the language in the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act [SARA] of 1986 through which Congress expanded and spelled out ATSDR's responsibilities in detail.
[He doesn't say that Carlo prepared the Chamical Manufacturers Association amendments]

    The views expressed in these comments are our own and do not necessarily reflect those of all of our clients.
He doesn't reveal who those clients are. Baller's testimony was followed by a statement from the Chemical Manufacturers Association objecting to the cost imposition of the clean-ups.
    [See Google for downloadable Hearing file]

[The EPA's Superfund web site search engine turns up 2,220 documents on SARA, but none carrying the name 'George Carlo' or variations on his name.]

1987–90: Michael Gough [a later Carlo associate in dioxins, TASSC and Cato Institute] chaired a Department of Veterans Affairs advisory committee about the possible health effects of herbicides used in Vietnam. [Source his book Politicizing Science]

[This appears to be distinct from Gough's previous employment with the Office of Technical Assessments (OTA)]

1987: Carlo's list of legal and political papers for this year:

  • The Health Related Authorities under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986: RI/FS, Settlement and Cost-Recovery Aspects.
  • Federal Legislation to Compensate Disease Victims: An Evolving Concept.
  • The Use of Disparate Impact Statistics to Infer Intent in Disparate Treatment Cases: An Analysis of Watson v. Fort Worth Bank and Trust
  • Evaluating US. and USSR Strategies for Managing the Risk of Nuclear War: A Comparison Based on an Environmental Risk Management Mode
  • Aspirin, Reyes Syndrome and the Warning Label: Too Late or Too Early?

[George Carlo's C/V.]

1987 Mar: The Journal of Occupational Medicine published Sources of Bias in Retrospective Cohort Mortality Studies: A Note on Treatment of Subjects Lost to Follow-up. This was an early study of bias in epidemiology studies (see his later work for Philip Morris). The authors were: Vena JE, Sultz HA, Carlo GL, Fiedler RC, and Barnes RE:

1987 Mar: Carlo gave testimony before the House Subcommittee on Health and Safety, Committee on Education and Labor, concerning HR 162, The High Risk Occupational Disease Notification and Prevention Act
[George Carlo's 1988 C/V] Also see

1987 May: /E Carlo begins a contractural relationship with the Chlorine Institute. [Backdated from statement made about May 1993 in his book]

"Carlo was forced [by the Banbury Conference dioxin fiasco] to end his six-year relationship with the Chlorine Institute.

George Carlo and Maurice LeVois establish
Health & Environmental Sciences Corp. (HES)

1987 Aug: This is a restructuring and renaming of George Carlo & Associates LeVois will operate the San Francisco office (HES-West), with Carlo staying in Washington DC (HES-East). [Source LeVois 1988 C/V to the Tobacco Institute]

    Note, however that another LeVois CV with the Tobacco Institute says that he was with Health & Environmental Services Corporation only until August 1987 when he started his own company, Environmental Health Resources, in San Francisco. This suggests that there never was a true partnership, although they continued to use each other's services.

[There is a one-year discrepency between Carlo's dates and those of LeVois. And note that the addition of 'Group' to the HES name came later.

    For a few months, LeVois in San Francisco, and Carlo in Washington, offered joint services on both sides of the continent to Philip Morris.]

[Source LeVois C/V]

1987 Oct 18: -22 Carol Conroy listed as being with George Carlo & Associates was speaking at the American Public Health Association conference "Health Care: For People or for Profit?" in New Orleans.

Carol Conroy, George Carlo & Associates, Inc., Falls Church, VA. 22046, Jess F. Kraus, UCLA Epidemiology Div".

Injuries are the leading cause of death in the United States for people "between one and forty-four years of age; brain injuries compose many of these fatal injuries. This paper examines survival in a cohort of San Diego county, California residents who were brain injured during 1981."

    The cumulative risk of death over time and predictors of death are used to evaluate survival. The results showed that about half of all who died, died in less than two hours. Severe overall body damage and severe brain injury are the greatest causes of prehospital death. People who survived until hospital admission tended to have brain injury as their underlying cause of death. Age, nature of brain injury and brain injury severity are the most important predictors of in-hospital death. People who survived long enough to be discharged from the hospital have survival comparable to the population they came from. However, more die from trauma-related causes than expected.

[Carol A Conroy was later a NIOSH Epidemiologist

In the 1987-89 period she was with George Carlo & Associates, and appears to have been involved in the prevention of sports injuries.]

1987 Nov: Carlo and LeVois release a report [This is probably after LeVois shifted back to San Francisco.] Birth Rates, Cancer Mortality, and Potential for Exposure to Trace Amounts of DBCP Through Groundwater Contamination Study of California. Counties. Contracted study report. CA November, 1987.

1987 Dec: George Carlo's friend and later partner on many ventures, Ian Munro of Cantox, has been paid $24,672 for contract work this year by RJ Reynolds. [$82,549 and $46,143 in following years.] [Cantox also uses the name/term "Health & Environmental Sciences" as a subheading on its letterhead.]

    Munro is just one of many scientists working for RJ Reynolds at this time advising them (reasonably legitimately) on the development of their Premier (no burning, low-tar, tube-cigarette, nicotine delivery system).

    This was known under many codenames "Q"... SPA Project...Project Alpha — and it became the short-lived fiasco known as the Premier and then Eclipse cigarette. It was essentially just a nicotine drug delivery system, and it triggered the FDA into action in the agency's later attempt to control tobacco as a drug.

See Page 15

1988: Carlo research paper is published: "Factors Influencing the Recognition of Early Stage Reye's Syndrome Among Physicians in the United States." funded by The Aspirin Foundation of America, [Giving Asprin to children had been found to increase the risk of them developing Reye's Syndrome]

1988: Carlo was awarded his JD from the Law School of George Washington University. [Source University Records}

1988: Carlo and LeVois jointly wrote a chapter in book on Superfund: ( The Public Health Authorities of Superfund: New Areas of Significant Cost Liability published by EEPC New York 1988

    Their chapter was entitled: " Insurance Claims for Environmental Damage: Legal and Technical Considerations".

1988 Jan: Carlo has also joined the Editorial Advisory Board of the insurance industry's new "Environmental Claims Journal" (product liability) which also has members from tobacco law firms (Covington & Burling), chemical and tobacco lobbyists (Beveridge & Diamond), the Chemical Manufacturers Association, various lobbyists and science-for-sale entrepreneurs.
    The second issue of the magazine deals with the ATSDR, SARA and the Superfund clean-up and it has an article by Dr George Carlo.

1988 Feb: Joint Carlo-LeVois papers published Mortality Surveillance: at the Mobay Chemical Corporation New Martinsville, West Virginia Facility: Report on a General Mortallity Survey. Contracted study report;

1988 Feb: - Sep 88. Following his law degree, Carlo appears to have revived George Carlo & Associates as a legal firm with technical expertise. In his CV he states that during this period he was "Technical and Legal Consultant [with] George Carlo & Associates, Inc."

1988 May: He is mass-producing legal-technical papers for the Washington Legal Foundation.
[The WLF is a corporate-funded product-liability think-tank which (for a fee) provides defense lawyers with information to help them fight law suits protecting the profits of their corporate clients. It is also part of the libertarian network backed by Scaife, Coors and Koch money ]

  • Compensating Persons With Diseases Related to Pollution in the United States and Japan:
  • ATSDR and the Health Related Authorities of SARA:
  • Prevention as an Alternative in the Delivery of Health Care: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
  • Health Surveillance as a Remedy in Latent Injury Cases: A Convergence of Legal, Equitable, and Scientific Principles.
  • Medical Surveillance, Superfund and Tort Action [Carlo's C/V]

1988 June: LeVois and Carlo publication: Diagnostic Suspicion Bias: Reye's Syndrome and Aspirin. Abstract published in American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol.128, No,.,4, pp..939, 1988.

    The above paper was also presented at the Annual Meeting Society for Epidemiology Research. Vancouver, Canada. and other symposiums, June, 1988. [Carlo C/V]

    [This is another Carlo paper following the theme of "Bias" and his later "Nocebo" promotion. In effect, it says that the problem is not with the product itself, but in the imagination of the victims, or in the bias of independent medical researcher/diagnosticians.]

Carlo begins dealings with the tobacco industry.

The Safe Smokeless Cigarette:
RJ Reynolds Tobacco and the other major cigarette companies all had R&D programs trying to get around the cancerous properties of minute chemical traces in tobacco smoke, while still selling a product which delivered the addictive substance, nicotine.

    The most advanced of these was the Reynolds Premier cigarette (later re-released as 'Eclipse'). It was essentially a heated tube which vaporised nicotine, and during the development stages it was known by a number of code names: Project Q, Project Alpha, Project SPA. All documents related to these developments were numbered and stamped SECRET.

    In the months before the first release of the Premier cigarette, selected and trusted scientists and academics were treated to a conference at Boston's Gradient Corporation, and provided with a monograph

    Another restricted conference was held in Washington, followed by a San Francisco conference which appears to have been used as a training ground for contracted consultants who were being commissioned to speak up in support of the new product.

1988 June 13: RJ Reynolds Secret document on the release of Project Alpha lists selected scientists who they plan to brief on this 'smokeless-tube cigarette' (later known as the Premier). The first list includes both known tobacco scientists and some obviously chosen for their professional prominence.

  • Ian Munro (then the Director of the Canadian Centre of Toxicology, Uni of Guelf) is listed as one of the Key Scientific Consultants doing the briefings in Canada.
  • George Carlo was one of the few non-academics invited to the Gradient Seminar (Gradient are a Boston science-for-sale outfit).

Carlo also received a monograph about the coming cigarette release. He is listed under the heading of Gradient Conference Attendee.
[The deletions appear to indicate trusted scientist who have already been briefed.]

1988 July: Publication of Cancer mortality of workers involved in chemical manufacturering, Plant Cohort : A Strong. Healthy Worker Effect. Contracted study report.

    The Dow Chemicals/RJ Reynolds lobbyist Matt Swetonic wrote in an August 1992 memo that [during this 1988-89 period] George Carlo worked for the chemical industries:

As recently as three or four years ago, he had a working relationship with EBH (E Bruce Harrison Co/Hill & Knowlton) doing joint projects for various chemical industry clients. In short, we know Carlo very well....

1988 July 21: Carlo was involved in the panel discussion "The Presentation of Epidemiological Evidence" (in the courts). This was at a symposium run by for science-witnesses and experts by District Court Judges Sherman G Finesilver and Carl B Rubin

    George Carlo made a reported comment at the symposium on the subject of "guilt-by-association and attacks on your credibility":

"From a professional perspective, testifying as an expert witness is potentially perilous to one's career. Some of those difficulties have to do with whether or not you're being retained as a testifying expert or as an non-testifying expert. The epidemiologist is one of the first lines of keeping spurious cases from getting to the point of having to go to court, particularly when you are retained as a non-testifying expert."
[Source now missing]

1988 Aug 10 - 30: RJ Reynolds has now extended its series of secret conferences promoting its 'Project Alpha' ('Premier' cigarette) the tube nicotine delivery system. This document includes lists of attendees — both Politicians and Scientists and is another numbered (ie checkable) RJR Secret Document.

    They have conference lists for

  • Washington DC — for East Coast scientists and academics from Philadelphia, Florida, Texas, etc. This list of 27 academics only has one which registers as an obvious tobacco consultant/grant-taker (Susan Wonnacott)
  • New York — for those from New York State, New England, Philaelphia, Canada, etc) This list of 16 academics only has two who work for tobacco companies (Frederick Seitz and Andrew Sivak)
  • San Francisco — West Coast.
          There are 27 on the list from all over the country, and at least half are known consultants to the tobacco industry. This appears to be a special group with many well-known and well-established tobacco consultant scientists and science-for-sale entrepreneurs — including that of George Carlo.who lived in Washington DC at this time.

1988 Sep: /E A later puff-piece published widely and reported in Neurodiversity.com says

"as Chairman of George Carlo & Associates, Carlo conducted research for R.J. Reynolds [Tobacco] on the effects of second-hand smoke".
[We are not clear as to which project this refers to... unless he was doing some active research on the Premier cigarette, which was promoted as reducing the level of secondary smoke.]

1988 Sep: /E Carlo was completing his Juris Doctorate (JD law degree) at George Washington Law School.

    His C/V also lists him as Chairman, Health & Environmental Sciences Corporation with Maurice LeVois as President.

[The Luther Rice Society [later in 2005] recognises those who have made gifts of more than $1000 to the George Washington University. It shows that George L. Carlo, JD [Class of 1988] and Patricia Carlo [his wife and business partner] were donors.

George Carlo and Maurice LeVois establish a partnership
Health & Environmental Sciences Ltd.

1988 Dec: George Carlo's C/V was sent to the Tobacco Institute along with one from his partner Maurice LeVois.

    They are actively touting for work — and not genuine research work, which would only be done by the cigarette companies or through grants from the TIRC. The only reason to approach the Tobacco Institute is to offer services in scientific PR, science corruption and lobbying.

1988 Dec: Environmental Claims Journal Publication of Public Health Claims Under Superfund: New Data and Tools for Estimating Liability and Apportioning Claims. by Carlo GL, LeVois ME and Godfrey LR.

    They have objections to the 1986 Superfund amendments (SARA), saying

The expanded authority given the ATSDR creates a new area of significant cost liability associated with remediation at hazardous waste treatment and storage facilities.

    The breadth and depth of these mandated health-related activities are unprecedented in federal legislation, and it is possible that the direct and indirect cost of managing the real and perceived public health risk will rival the cost of cleanup.

1989 Feb: Approximate publication date for a number of joint papers on

  • Groundwater in Californian Counties by Carlo GL and LeVois ME, with Doemland ML, Ponomarenko T, and Conroy C:
  • Birth Rates and Potential for Exposure to Trace Amounts of DBCP Through Groundwater Contamination:
  • Cancer Mortality and Potential for Exposure to Trace Amounts of DBCP Through Groundwater Contamination:
[These had been submitted for publication in late 1988 at the time the Carlo and LeVois C/Vs were sent to the Tobacco Institute.]

1989 Feb: A major spillage of dioxin chemicals occured in the Melbourne Water Catchment Area (Werribee) in Australia following an accidental release of waste from the NuFarm herbicide plant. This spillage created some consternation in Melbourne when the news leaked out.

    Dow Chemicals, which owned NuFarm via a New Zealand subsidiary called Fernz, would have been informed. Their technical director and dioxin expert at that time was George Carlo.

See latest information on dioxins.

1989 Apr: One of Carlo's later puff-pieces says that during this year, as Chairman of the Carlo Institute for Public Health Policy, he " recruited and trained academic scientists for tobacco research, and taught courses on 'Media Relations' and 'Effective Management of Research Funds.'

[The date he gives for the Carlo Institute appears to be too early — this 'Institute' didn't surface until the early 1990s (he is notoriously careless about dates) and there is no evidence of any such courses run through the Carlo Institute (which didn't actually exist, except as a name).

    However it could be a reference to the fact that he acted as a covert recruiter of corruptable scientists, and helped train some of them to make media and podium appearances. He did this for Philip Morris and the Tobacco Institute in June 1989 (leading up to the closed McGill University ETS Conference in November 1989)]

See Tobacco Institute document on their recruitment program (See Part 2).

1989 May 17: George Carlo, as the Manager of Health & Environmental Sciences, writes about the Australian dioxin spill, to his client, Nufarm Chemicals

    Werribee council has submitted a list of requested actions for a clean-up of the Nufarm site. They wanted details of the company's Occupational Health and Safety Programme and expressed concern "with the lack of adequate housekeeping." They also objected to NuFarm's habit of storing drums of chemicals along the boundaries of the property without adequate safety measures.

[In June Carlo and his team received soil samples. Their report suggests that Carlo, together with his secretary Kelly Sund, and lawyer James Baller (his co-authors on the report) had visited Australia. However we can not find any evidence that they did at this time. It appears to have been a remote operation using totally unqualified support staff as co-authors.

    He was obviously very busy at this time with recruitment for the tobacco industry in Washington and Canada.]

George Carlo and Maurice LeVois turn their attention
to working seriously for the tobacco industry.

    • See Part 2 — Tobacco industry, GEP and miscellaneous chemical industry projects.

George Louis Carlo
Part 1 — Dioxins, Love Canal, Three Mile Island, Agent Orange etc.
Part 2 — Tobacco industry, GEP and miscellaneous chemical industry projects.
Part 3 — Cellphone EMF problems: the CTIA and SAG/WTR
Part 4 — Later tobacco and other — immunology, vaccination, breast implants.
Part 5 — Later problems with cellphone EMF research and the demise of the WTR.
Part 6 — EMF scaremongering and various cellphone 'protection' businesses.



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