This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.
Robert William ('Bob') Packwood
(R-Oregon - )
— A moderate Republican who became a lobbyist and tobacco supporter —
Packwood was a moderate-to-liberal conservative — but highly pragmatic and willing to take on-board any ideology that suited him at the time.
He is said to have become a 'gadfly to the conservative Reagan Administration' because he voted against many of their policies. He was also a passionate believer in deregulation and wasn't shy about making his opinions known. He was also the first Senate Republican to support Nixon's impeachment.
He became Chairman of the powerful Senate Commerce Committee and a member of the Labor and Human Resources Committee. What's more, he was a supporter of legislation requiring stronger warnings on cigarette packets at the time when the Reaganites in the GOP were attempting to reverse changes introduced by the previous anti-smoking Secretary of Health and Human Services, Joseph Califano, during the Carter Administration.
Senators Packwood and Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) joined forces with Congressman Henry Waxman (D-Calif) in attempting to strengthen, rather than weaken, the warning labels. Their bill also sought to establish an office of smoking and health within the Department of Health and Human Services. For many years he was targetted by the tobacco industry, and seen as a major threat to their financial well-being.
Later he had some sort of conversion. Now Packwood appeared to be quite comfortable walking both sides of the street. He was a clever tactician who learned to play off the threat of excise tax increases for support of his favourite Freedom of Expression Foundation. So while he publically promoted what were seen as anti-smoking excise tax increases, his Foundation was supporting the industry in exchange for donations.
He left Congress after a long confrontation over sexual harassment charges.
Some key documents
• His main aides were Frank Cantrell and Craig R Smith.
1962: Elected to the Oregon Legislature. His electioneering techniques became known as "Packwood style" campaigning methods.
1965: Founded the Dorchester Conference, an annual political conclave on the Oregon Coast that "pointedly ignored state leadership in the Grand Old Party" to bring Republican officeholders and citizens together to discuss current issues and pass resolutions taking stands on those issues. Initially if was a forum for liberal politics, [but] it has become an annual networking event for Oregon Republicans.[Wikipedia]
1982 March 18: Packwood, Orrin Hatch and Henry Waxman are attempting to strengthen the warning labels on cigarette packs. They also want an Office of Smoking and Health within the Health and Human Services Department.
1983 Sep: /E Report: Republican Opposition to Tobacco [CONFIDENTIAL] Tobacco Institute.
Summary Analysis: Recently, a number of highly placed Republicans have done more to hurt the tobacco industry and the economies of the 14 tobacco-producing states than any Administration in recent history. They promote increases in federal excise taxes, erosion of finances for tobacco price-support programs, and the introduction of rotating health warnings on smoking packs. The result they claim, has been a 6.1% drop in cigarette sales.
In 1982, a number of Republican candidates for the House lost by narrow margins in the tobacco states. The perception on the part of many voters is that the current Republican Administration was the cause of their defeat because of its position on the tobacco issues.
The Republican strategists identify the main culprits as:
In 1984, the majority of people involved in the tobacco industry could return en masse to the Democrats — both in local and national elections — because of Republican's position on tobacco.
The Facts of the Matter: In both House and Senate hearings during the past two years, a number of highly respected scientific witnesses presented extensive evidence that, despite almost three decades of research, no causal link has been established between cigarette smoking and human disease.
- Dr Everett Koop, Surgeon General
- Dr Edward N Brandt, Jr, Assistant Secretary for Health and Human Services.
- Senator Robert Dole, Chairman of Senate Finance Committee
- Senator Orrin Hatch, Chairman of Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee
- Senator Robert Packwood
- Senator William Cohen
- Senator Jake Garn
- Rep Thomas E Petri
- Richard Schweiker, ex Sec of Health and Human Services.
There is absolutely no scientific proof that cigarette smoke is a health hazard to nonsmokers .
[This was an old tobacco industry chill-tactic. They were threatening the Republican Party and individual Senators with a lack of financial support in future campaigns.]
1986 Apr 3: CONFIDENTIAL report on the Packwood Tax Plan being circulated within the Tobacco Institute.[mainly scuttlebutt]
Wyoming counsel Bill Thomson reports that his White House sources say [President] Reagan is getting "bad advice" on tax reform ... Thomson says Reagan has been persuaded to sign "anything" from the senate that has the tax reform label ... idea is that White House can then say Reagan has made the most sweeping tax changes since JFK.
They are also enlisting beer magnate Joseph Coors to keep his Colorado Senator Armstrong in line,
Packwood met with Peter Rupp, Chairman of trucking outfit Freightliner ... Packwood told him that this entire tax package was a "trial balloon" he had launched at the White House's request ... Packwood added that he "didn't give a damn about [keeping] the ad valorem" tax in the bill ... that same message was relayed to representatives of the Oregon Truckers Assn. and a Anheiser-Busch rep...Graham believes these comments were made in large measure because of contacts generated thus far.
Consultant Lynn Young has been invited to dine 4/20 at the senator's Washington home ... she will use this opportunity to discuss the Packwood proposal in depth ... Young will meet at TI before and after her dinner with Armstrong.
Regional Director Graham initiated call to Armstrong through state attorney general ... Armstrong says he will VOTE NO on Packwood plan re excise taxes...[Graham] also got promise from Joe Coors to contact Armstrong.
1986 May 21: Craig Smith now has Congressman Packwood acting as a direct recruiter for the Freedom of Expression Foundation. Packwood is writing a personal letter to the CEO's of the tobacco companies [Here Robert Ave of Lorillard] [which itself is an implied threat ... should they choose not to take his advice and join]
Dr. Smith urged your company to join our coalition. Let me take this opportunity to endorse his request for Lorillard's support of the Foundation.
If you would like to earmark a contribution for a specific project, please consider the Foundation's videotaped lecture series on the First Amendment. I am enclosing a 20 minute VHS tape which includes introductions to this lecture series that Dan Rather, Tom Brokaw, Tom Jarriel, Daniel Schorr and I have provided. Once you've had time to view that tape, you'll have a good idea of what the Foundation proposes to make available to campuses across the nation during the bicentennial of the Constitution.
Philip Morris has generously supported the work of the Foundation with a $15,000 contribution and it's my understanding that RJ Reynolds is in the process of making a similar tax-exempt contribution. Lorillard's support for this project would mean alot to me ....
1986 June 4: Flieshman Hillard PR, working for Fred Panzer at the Tobacco Institute reports on their work in May to counter the "Packwood Tax Plan." They appear to have been working mainly with LULAC and the Hispanic groups — now sending thank-you notes for having defeated some measure.
1986 June 23: Senator Packwood writes to thank Lorillard for contributing
$2,000 to the Education & Research Fund of the Freedom of Expression Foundation in support of the Foundation's videotaped lecture series. Such generosity will assist us to get the message across to college students that the airwaves belong to all communicators. [The extension of this argument is the one that says "the freedom of the press belongs to everyone who owns one."
The fact was that their main activities had been to destroy the Fairness Doctrine which allowed individuals and activist groups to compete to a minor degree with the advertising dollars of the major corporations. ]
Lorillard sends a copy of this letter to the Tobacco Institute — a very unusual occurance — and one obviously related to their advice to the TI accountant about the $2,000 check.
1986 Aug 20: Craig Smith at the Freedom of Expression Foundation wrote to Anne Duffin expressing his appreciation for the further $5,000 donation from the Tobacco Institute. He is now on first-name terms with "Anne" and agrees with the Institute's request for anonymity:
As you specifically requested, Anne, we will not list The Tobacco Institute as one of those whose generosity made possible the distribution of our program to broadcast departments all across the country, but never the less, we won't forget your assistance to our efforts!
[He adds a hand-note "P.S. See enclosed article — That will teach them to try to keep me off a panel." and he also ccs Senator Bob Packwood to ensure that he is aware of the tobacco industry's anonymous financial generousity (now totalling $43,000).]
1986 Dec: /E Senator Packwood temporarily abandoned his fund-raising tax plan.
1988 July Craig Smith relocate his Freedom of Expression Foundation to California, but still continued to work with the Tobacco Institute.
1990 Mar 18: Fred Panzer is sending "New Names On Witness List" to his superiors Bob Lewis and Martin Gleason at the Tobacco Institute. It has many new names including:
Craig R. Smith, President Freedom of Expression Foundation (Dr. Smith is a former aide of Senator Packwood; the Senator is a strong supporter of the Foundation.)
1992 Dec: Packwood defeated the Oregon Democrat candidate Les AuCoin. Publication of the Washington Post sex-abuse story has been delayed until after the 1992 election. Packwood had denied the allegations and the Post had not gathered enough of the story at the time.
As the situation developed, Packwood's diary became an issue. Wrangling over whether the diary could be subpoenaed and whether it was protected by the Fifth Amendment's protection against self-incrimination ensued.
He did turn over 5000 pages to the Senate Ethics Committee but balked when a further 3200 pages were demanded by the committee. It was discovered that he had edited the diary, removing what were allegedly references to sexual encounters and the sexual abuse allegations made against him.
Packwood then made what some of his colleagues interpreted as a threat to expose wrongdoing by other members of Congress. The diary allegedly detailed some of his abusive behavior toward women and, according to a press statement made by former Nevada Senator Richard Bryan, "raised questions about possible violations of one or more laws, including criminal laws."
1994 Sep 19: The New York Times reported the remarks (never subsequently denied) that Bob Packwood made to his Republican senatorial colleagues during closed-door strategy sessions while he was managing the Republican attack during the summer.
Packwood told his fellow Republican senators. "Now we've got to make sure our fingerprints are not on it."
For many this is the "smoking gun": proof of a carefully plotted, and secret, Republican strategy. [Source NY Times]
1995 Mar 3: Arthur Stevens of Lorillard is sending Craig Smith at the Freedom of Expression Foundation his regular check for $2,000 representing Lorillard's
"1995 contribution to the Freedom of Expression Foundation... for your efforts in support of First Amendment and related commercial free speech and advertising matters."
[Note this has been copied to The Honorable Robert Packwood , US Senate.]
1995 Sep 7: Packwood finally announced his resignation from the Senate after the Senate Ethics Committee unanimously recommended that he be expelled from the Senate for ethical misconduct. Soon after leaving the Senate, Packwood founded the lobbying firm Sunrise Research Corporation. The former senator used his expertise in taxes and trade and his status as a former Senate Finance Committee chairman to land lucrative contracts with numerous clients, among them Northwest Airlines, Freightliner Corp. and Marriott International Inc
1995 Oct: /E Sunrise Research Corporation, a PR and lobbying firm, was founded by Senator Bob Packwood after he left Congress over sexual harrassment charges. He represents timber interests, and specialised in programs to reduce taxes. Packwood's father was also a Republican lobbyist who worked for Oregon timber interests.
1995 Dec 15: St Petersburg Times "Bob Packwood, the new lobbyist on the block".
There are some who are thunderstruck by the notion that the man who dragged the Senate through one of the most sordid episodes in modern history is now opening a political consulting firm on Capitol Hill. The man who pounced on unsuspecting women, solicited jobs for his estranged wife from lobbyists and altered his diaries, now wants to advice corporate clients on how to win over the same senators who expelled him.
[Google news] [Claus von Bulow is generally believed to have murdered his wife and escaped punishment]
But most people in the capital do not expect 'The Tongue' to be a pariah. They expect him to go on to great things as the 'Claus von Bulow of K Street'.
1997 Aug 3: Washington Post story "Lobbying's Big Hitters Go to Bat". Former Senate Finance Committee chairman Robert Packwood lobbied for lumber mills and other small businesses to secure a cut in the estate tax, joining forces with the politically powerful small-bsuness lobby, the National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB)
1998 Oct 17: Letter to the Editor, Madison Newspapers, says that Kenneth Starr ws given his job as Clinton's prosecutor because he was a tobacco lawyer.... by Jesse Helms, Lauch Faircloth, and David Sentelle.
The day that felon David Hale testified that Bill Clinton profited knowingly from an illegal loan, Ken Starr was featured on CNN's Headline News crowing about his defense of Brown & Williamson, which claims that nicotine is not addictive (and Starr says, "Just the facts!" ).
In fact it appears as though Starr got his job as Clinton persecutor as a result of his tobacco connections. A three judge panel led by David B. Sentelle, a hometown protege of North Carolina Sen. Jesse Helms, chose Starr.
Just prior to Starr's appointment, Sentelle had lunch on Capitol Hill with Helms and Lauch Faircloth, another pro-tobacco senator from North Carolina. It was Faircloth who had led the attack on Robert Fiske, Starr's predecessor as Whitewater independent counsel, And Starr gives financial support to tobacco's political allies. Federal campaign finance reports show that in November 1993 he gave $ 1,000 to Sen. John Ashcroft.
And this is not the first time Starr has focused on the sex life of a politician. A congressional committee chose Starr to review the intimate sex details of former Sen. Bob Packwood's diaries.