This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.
[ Prof PhD]
— A long-serving friend of the tobacco industry from the Wharton School at Philidelphia University. This school was also a firm tobacco industry collaborator on many genuine and fake activities. —
The Wharton School/Center at the University of Pennsylvania, was one of the most compliant academic institutions in the world when it came to serving the tobacco industry. Any time the industry wanted some 'independent expert' to speak on their behalf, or some 'independent academic institution' to run a seminar which was tightly controlled and pre-planned to produce pro-smoking propaganda, the Wharton School was available.
Some key documents
• See also the cash-for-comment academic business/marketing network
1986: Statement of Dr Scott Ward, Professor of Marketing, the Wharton School, quoted in Advertising of Tobacco Products: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce.
[In a 1989 list of Tobacco Institute quotes for use with the media.]
Dr Scott Ward, Professor of Marketing at the Wharton School, testified that "advertising is among the least influential factors involved" in the decision by children and teenagers to smoke.
In his own research with pre-teenage children involving other products, Dr Ward found that "parents and peers are much more important determinants of children's developing consumer behavior patterns that advertising."
Banning tobacco product advertisinq, Dr Ward concluded, "would not reduce tobacco product use or prevent people, including some young people, from deciding to smoke in the first place."
As early as 1969, data gathered for the American Cancer Society had suggested that "persons in the environment are clearly very important in shaping smoking behavior. Where parents or other frequently-seen adults smoke, youngsters are more likely to take up the habit.... Most influential of all seem to be friends."
1986 Aug 1: APCO (Philip Morris's private PR firm) have compiled this document. It lists:
Statement of Scott Ward, PhD. [from] The Wharton School Re: Proposals to Ban or Restrict Tobacco Product Advertising The Author was Scott Ward, the source was the Tobacco Institute and the statement had been taken on 1 August 1986. Note that Ward's statement was taken on the same day as one from Roger Blackwell — both apparently at/by the Tobacco Institute.
1987 May 4: In a memo to his Executive Committee, the President of the Tobacco Institute, Sam Chilcote outlines their allies in the fight to preserve advertising of cigarettes.
The purpose of this memorandum is to summarize the legislative situation, our strategies and resources. A variety of Tobacco Institute consultants have been and will continue to be used as witnesses and media spokesmen by the above coalitions. They include: — First Amendment attorneys including Prof. Bert Neuborne, New York University Law School; Prof. Philip Kurland, University of Chicago Law School;
— Marketing experts such as Prof. Roger Blackwell, Ohio State University; Prof. Scott Ward, Wharton School of Business; Prof. Jean Boddewyn, Baruch College, City University of New York; Michael Waterson, research director, Advertising Association of Great Britain; and Ronald Beatson, European Association of Advertising Agencies.
1987 May 5: Sam Chilcote (head of Tobacco Institute) memo to the Executive Committee re. tobacco advertising ban in Canada and the US and the Strategies and Programs that the TI have implemented to block them, He notes:
Coalitions and Expert Witnesses =
- Prof Bert Neuborne, New York University Law School — a First Amendment attorney.
- Prof Philip Kurland , University of Chicago Law School — a First Amendment attorney
- Prof Roger Blackwell, Ohio State University - marketing expert
- Prof Scott Ward, Wharton School of Business - marketing expert
- Prof Jean Boddewyn, Baruch College, City Uni of New York - marketing expert
- Michael Waterson, research director, Advertising Association of Great Britain - marketing expert
- Roger Beatson, European Association of Advertising Agencies. - marketing expert
- Darwin Johnson, Peat Marwick's Policy Economic Group on the economic impact of an ad ban. (Economist writing op-ed articles - for lobbying congressmen)
- Prof Fred McChesney, University of Chicago Law School (Economist writing op-ed articles - for lobbying congressmen)
- Vernon Dempsey , Phoenix Marketing, on cigarette sampling practices.
1987 July 23: Sam Chilcote of the Tobacco Institute is reporting to his Executive Committee. He is lining up witnesses for a Waxman hearing on both the Synar Bill and Whittaker Bill (ad ban legislation). The advertising industry has lined up:
The Tobacco Institute has lined up:
- Scott Ward, Ph.D., Professor of Marketing, the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
- Barry Lynn, Esq., Legislative Counsel, American Civil Liberties Union
- Richard E. Wiley, Esq. Wiley, Rein, & Fielding, sponsored by the Washington Legal Foundation
- Professor Burt Neuborne, New York University Law School, on behalf of the Association of National Advertisers
- David Starr, Publisher, the Union News & Republic, Springfield, MA, on behalf of the American Newspaper Publishers Association
- Professor Philip Kurland, University of Chicago Law School, on behalf of the Magazine Publishers Association
- Leonard Matthews, President, the American Association of Advertising Agencies
- Michael J. Waterson, Director of Research, Advertising Association of Great Britain,, on behalf of the American Advertising Federation
- Charles Whitley. Mr. Whitley will also submit for the record statements of Professor Martin Redish, Northwestern University Law School, and Wallace D. Riley, former President of the American Bar Association.
- Jean J Boddewyn, Prof of Marketing and Intl Business, Baruch College, City University of New York
1987 Dec 28: Peter Sparber has prepared the Tobacco Institute's "Public Affairs, Management Plan, Progress Report (to Dec 1987)" The staff are dealing with a number of issues:
Fred Panzer writes about his activies with the Advertising Issues:
- Excise Tax — run by Jeff Ross
- Public Smoking — Susan Stuntz, Chip Foley, Sharon Ransom
- General Coaltions — Susan Stuntz
- Advertising Issues — Fred Panzer
- Scientific Affairs — Peter Sparber
- Media Relations — Brennan Moran
- Accidental Fire — Lisa Osborne
- Misc — Anne Dedick runs Production Services. John Lyons deals with Information
Scott Ward, professor of marketing at the Wharton School, will review a study by two UCLA psychologists, William J. McCarthy and Ellen Gritz, who are veteran anti-smoking witnesses at Congressional hearings.
McCarthy claims his research demonstrates that cigarette advertising has a significant effect on teen-age smoking. McCarthy used the study as the basis of his testimony at Waxman hearings in July.
Ward has the expertise to assess and rebut the study at any hearings in 1988.
1989: Tobacco Institute: Susan Stuntz "The Plan" for countering public-smoking ban hearings, excise tax increases, and possible advertising bans.. She outlines tactics and strategies to counter Advertising Bans :
The Tobacco Institute must focus public attention on the process rather than the products. Our strategy should emphasize that tobacco is a legal product and is entitled to advertise; the advertising industry and the media are the principal losers; we are the first of a number of other industries whose advertising may be targeted for extinction by some activist group.
Following are the themes and witnesses available to us:
Advertising is "commercial speech" and is protected by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution.
- Prof Burt Neuborne, New York University Law School.
- Prof Scott Ward, Wharton School
- Prof Philip Kurland, Chicago University Law School.
- Prof Martin Redish, Northwester University Law School
- Barry Lynn, ACLU Washington.
- Morton Halperin, ACLU Washington.
- "Dangerous Precedent"
- "Radical Change is Unnecessary"
- "Ad Bans Don't Work
1990 /E: Google Book "Leasing the ivory tower: the corporate takeover of academic" by Lawrence C Soley talks about Professor Scott Ward of the Wharton Institute:
[M]ost of these "experts" do not disclose their financial arrangements in published biographies, testimonies, or published research articles about cigarette advertising. For example, university of Pennsylvania business professor Scott Ward, who has frequently testified about the effects of cigarette advertising on behalf of the tobacco industry in congressional hearings, published a report in the International Journal of Advertising which concluded that "advertising plays a negligible role in smoking initiation of maintenance," but never mentioned in it his work for the tobacco companies.
The article concluded that children are "street wise" and not affected by tobacco adverising. Ward based his conclusions on "experiments" that he conducted on children over a 20-year period.
During congressional hearings on tobacco advertising that were conducted during the late 1980s and early 1990s, Ward was a ubiqutous witness for the tobacco companies. Like Claude Martin, he testified that cigarette advertising promoted brand switching among smokers but did not induce young people to smoke. "The role of advertising for mature markets [like cigarettes] is to keep the consumer who use the product loyal to the brand being advertised or to prompt consumers of other brands to switch," Ward testified.
Ward's extracurricular activities, such as providing expert testimony in favor of the tobacco industry, must have been lucrative because he purchased a 16-room mansion, surrounded by a ten-foot-high brick wall for $550,,, in 1984, according to the Philadelphia Inquirer. The mansion was described in news reports of Ward's arrest for statutory rape and corruption of minors.
Ward might be the only professor on the tobacco-company dole who has been charged with corrupting minors, but he is not the only professor who has failed to divulge tobacco-industry ties when writing articles about cigarette advertising.
1990 Jan 12: -13 A group of tobacco-advertising academics met in Windsor England in a loaded conference to discuss how ineffective advertising was in creating a desire in children to smoke. They later published a special edition (edited by Scott Ward) of these tobacco-friendly proceedings in the International Journal of Advertising.
- Abraham Oppenheim of London School of Economics (Chair)
- Reinhold Bergler, University of Bonn;
- Klaus Grunert, Aarhus School of Economics, Denmark;
- John Luik, Brock University, Ontario, Canada;
- Tony Meenaghan, University College, Dublin;
- Theo Poiesz, Tilburg University, The Netherlands;
- Fred van Raaij, Erasmus University, Rotterdam;
- Scott Ward, The Wharton School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania;
- Michael Waterson, The Advertising Association;
- Brian Young, Exeter University, UK.
In the discussions particular emphasis was given to the effects of tobacco advertising on children. [They found none, of course]
[They appeared to have played the old trick of having an elderly-but-respected academic with a credible reputation in the smoking/cancer area to act as "Chairman".
Oppenheim was an ex-director of the New York Health Department, and he is the only attendee at this conference not obviously identified as a tobacco lackey. It's also notable that, in the conference report by Scott Ward, Oppenheim is the only one not mentioned as contributing to the discussion.]
1990 Feb: Professor S Ward of the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, is listed as giving evidence to an inquiry in Western Australia on tobacco advertising and sports sponsorhip. His evidence came from the only expert or organisation on this list which had no connection whatsoever to Australia.
Probably by coincidence, West Australia was also the state where his associate in the tobacco industry's academic lobbying network, Richard Mizerski, ended up teaching in the 2000 period.
1990 Apr: /E Paper "Advertising does not induce young people to start smoking." re 1986 statement of
Dr Scott Ward, Professor of' Marketing, at Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, before the House Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, testified that "... advertising is among the least influential factors in a young person's developing patterns of consumer behaviour.
1990 July 12: A Tobacco Institute document lists the editorial successes of a large number of the paid cash-for-comments academics and consultants. It outlines what each has done in the recent past.
Scott Ward, Professor of Marketing, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
4/1/90 Testimony on behalf of TI on advertising and consumption (Luken hearing)
3/90 Traveled to Houston with TI to cover and respond to the Associaton of State and Territorial Health Officer's meeting on Tobacco Prevention and Control
7/25/89 Testimony on behalf of consumption (H.R. 1250)
1990 Aug 3: Sam Chilcote at the Tobacco Institute has advised the Members of the Executive Committee of plans to develop a celebrity speakers program using academics and other expert consultants. They offer the speakers both money and personal/companypromotion:
[W]hile it is clear that there are a number of individuals who can and are speaking out on our issues independent of The Institute, there also is much more that could be done. There are, for example, opportunities to develop higher profiles for those individuals with whom we enjoy an existing relationship, and to increase within the media an awareness of their availability.
He then lists:
There also are a number of individuals who have been identified who do not currently have a relationship with the industry, but whose views appear to be compatible with our own. Should the Executive Committee decide that it wants to proceed with an expansion of our speakers' program, these individuals would be contacted to determine their interest in our issues.
The addition of new speakers to our program will be expensive. Most of these individuals command substantial consulting fees; media and other activity will require a new commitment of funds, although an exact amount cannot be determined until candidates have been approached.
This person along with about a hundred others, is thought to be a potential speaker and is credited with recent achievements over the previous year on behalf of the Tobacco Institute. The category heading was :-
- Authors, newscasters and newspaper columnists
- Well-known politicians, political aides, White House staffers, State authorities, agency administrators, etc
- Heads of various coalition groups (American Advertising Federation. etc)
- Cash-for-comments legal and business academics from Savarese's network list.
- Cash-for-comments 'risk assessment' academics and promoter.
- Cash-for-comment experts in indoor air pollution and ventilation systems.
- Cash-for-comment academic economists
- Many other collaborators and some likely allies:
First Amendment/Constitutional Issues
professor of marketing,
The Wharton School of Economics
[In tobacco industry parlance, this refers to the "Freedom to Advertise" or so-called "Commerical Free Speech" projects run in conjunction with the print and broadcast media.
1994 Dec 10: Karen Darangan [PM] report on the industry's Surgeon General's Task Force. They have a "Wish List of Resources" that need to be developed for "proactive and defensive response" to the next Surgeon General's report on Smoking and Health.
Attached is a list of experts who can be called upon to support various issues which may arise. These are generally from third-party organisations which often supported the tobacco industry, but there was also an "Other" caregory which listed:
- Burson-Marsteller and Young & Rubican are being contracted to help with research and the identification of scientific studies which can be used to support the industry position.
- Others are putting together a list of third party experts, including the COURSE advisory board [A program involving teachers and parents]
- They are updating their Youth Progams
- Scott Ward
- Richard Mizerski (University of Florida)
- Martha Rogers
- Howard Beale (George Washington University)
- Joel Dubow, Editor, Food and Beverage Marketing
- Bob Peck, American Civil Liberties Union