This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.
Citizens for Tax Justice
(CTJ [ also a Network])
— This organisation was run by PR firm Ogilvy & Mather. It acted as a front for the tobacco and other industries, and had a network of state anti-tax organisations. —
This was an anti-tax front group and network of subsidiary policy-institutes which was under the control of Ogilvy & Mather, the giant advertising and public-relations company. It was widely used by the tobacco industry whenever they had a problem with excise taxes at either the state or federal level.
James Savarese & Associates, the labor and economics lobby-firm employed by the Tobacco Institute to run the economists cash-for-comments network, also provided 'in-kind services' to Citizens for Tax Justice.
In June 1986 it lists as Officers and Board of Directors a large number of genuine public-interest groups and union/labor-oriented organisations interspersed with a couple of tobacco front organisations and some corporate coalition front groups. The board of directors, of course, is for show only; it is far too large and diverse to have ever made any meaningful decisions.
Also note the citizens committee representations from Ohio, Wisconsin, Illinois, Pennsylvania and Massachusettes, but not from the other States.
However the formulation of the CTJ shows just how effective Ogilvy & Mather was in persuading (often with financial incentives) labor officials to support their commercial causes.
- Ira Arlook, President, from the Ohio Public Interest Campaign
- Gerald W. McEntee, Vice President, from the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (Jim McEntee worked for O&M)
- William Hutton, Secretary, from the National Council of Senior Citizens
- John Sweeney, Treasurer, from the Service Employees International Union
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
- Virginia Abbott — League of Women Voters
- Morton Bahr — Communications Workers of America
- Owen Bieber — International Union. UAW
- Al Bilik — Public Employee Department, AFL-CIO
- Kenneth T. Blaylock — American Federation of Government Employees
- Jeff Blum — Pennsylvania Public Interest Campaign
- William Bywater — International Union of Electronic Workers. IUE
- Steve Brobeck — Consumer Federation of America (corporate front org.)
- Joan Claybrook — Public Cilizen (A Nader organisation)
- Bob Creamer — Illinois Public Action Council
- John DeConcini — Bakery. Confectionary and Tobacco Workers
- Larry Dugan — International Union of Operating Engineers
- Jeff Egan — Wisconsin Action Coalition
- Faith Evans — Office for Church in Society, United Church of Christ
- Robert Georgine — Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO
- Lenny Goldberg — California Tax Reform Association (tobacco front)
- Elena Hanggi — ACORN
- Benjamin Hooks — National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
- Blair Horner — NY Public Interest Research Group
- Lane Kirkland — AFL-CIO
- Carolyn Lucas — Massachusetts Fair Share
- Jane Perkins — New Populist Forum
- Howard Samuel — Industrial Union Department, AFL-CIO
- Albert Shanker — American Federation of Teachers
- Tom Swan — United States Student Association
- Linda Tarr-Whelan — National Center on Policy Alternatives (O&M front organisation)
- William Winpisinger — International Association of Machinists
Some key documents
• Staff in 1986
- David C Wilhelm, Executive Director, (worked for the Tobacco Institute)
- Robert S McIntyre, Director Federal Tax Policy, (worked for the Tobacco Institute).
- Fritz Wiecking, Organizing Director
- Edward R Myers, Program Director
- Jeff Spinner, Policy Analyst
- John Anzalone, Legislative Assistant
- Veronica Gibson, Office Manager
1981 Dec 1: James Savarese reports to Susan Stuntz at the Tobacco Institute for activites during November (for himself and his employee, Leslie Dawson). His consultancy is specialising in coopting labor and economists, and countering the next Surgeon General's report.
He also lists successes he has had with getting economists to plant op-eds on various local newspapers.
- met with officials of the Economic Policy Institute (EPI) to discuss tax strategy.
- continued discussion with Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW) re national convention
- continued work with National Energy Management Institute (NEMI) on development of training program and brochure.
- meetings with Citizens for Tax Justice, Leadership for the New Century, Citizens for Tax Justice, National Economic Commission.
- on the task force for Airline Cabin Air Quality (weekly meetings/ writing op-eds)
- Prof David Saurman - op-ed on Prop 99 with San Jose Mercury News
Also numerous reviews of the Tollison/Wagner book "Smoking and the State".
- Prof Ryan Amacher (Clemson Uni) in The State.
- Joseph Jadlow (Oklahoma State Uni) in Tulsa Tribune.
- Todd Sandler (Iowa State Uni) in Fort Dodge Messenger.
- Robert B Ekelund (Auburn Uni) Montgomery Advertiser.
- Dwight R Lee (Washington Uni) Regulation Magazine.
- Samson Kimenyi (Uni of Mississippi) in Jackson Clarion ledger.
- David ER Gay (Uni of Arkansas) in Arkansas Democrat.
Also attached are the accounts ($114,589 for the Tobacco Industry Labor Management Committee disbursement.
- Citizens for Tax Justice has been paid $6,000
- The Coalition on Human Needs has been paid $4,000
- Ogilvy & Mather has been paid $19,092 + $17,924
- First Star Communications — $7,030
- James Savarese & Assoc — $ 11,062
- Zoeller & Associates — $8,000
- Economic Policy Institute — $5,000
- Leadership New Century — $7,500
- Wunder & Diefenderfer — $12,302
- Joe Daniels — $ 6,154
1984 Jul: The Tobacco Institute's Cigarette Excise Tax Plan.
The plan augments our basic lobbying efforts by relying on groups outside the industry — some not regularly associated with the industry — to argue against excise taxes for us.
It is an ambitious program, based on the notion that many of the most effective protests against tobacco taxes will come from groups philosophically distant from The Institute. Many such groups agree with us on the excise issue, even though they disagree with us on other matters.
At the federal level, supporting Congressional members from the tobacco states is essential to our lobbyists. The tobacco members consistently vote as a unified group — something that is rarely seen in Congress today. They are our lobbyists' most important resource.
The program recommends that economic and other consultants assist us in developing, "packaging," and presenting our anti-excise arguments in legislative testimony or meetings with coalition members.
Economic consultants with different areas of expertise will conduct research and act as spokespersons for The Institute and organizations supported by The Institute. Specific activities with economists are discussed throughout the tactics.
- Stimulate reputable public finance economists at key state universities to determine the validity of state revenue forecasts, perhaps on behalf of state business organizations and present arguments against excise taxes in various forums; e.g., meetings with potential coalition members or budget officials.
- Encourage economists to make the case against regressive taxation in meetings with potential coalition members and legislators.
- Retain public finance economists affiliated with non-profit organizations to research the subject and use their findings in forums such as:
- Private meetings with state legislators or staff ;
- formal testimony before government bodies ;
- targeted media appearances;
- speeches before business, civic, labor, and other groups ;
- tax symposia in key states where the proceedings could be published for use in other states ; and
- articles which raise the visibility of key arguments in the business, academic, and popular press.
- Presenting specific members of the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees with arguments prepared by economists with whom they share some common interest; e.g college affiliation, service on the same commission.
- Gaining the support of Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ), the most influential labor/liberal tax reform group in the country, in opposition to excise taxes.
- Relying on the AFL-CIO — via The Bakery, Confectionery, and Tobacco Workers Union — to ensure that the labor/liberal tax package that emerges in the next session of Congress does not include tobacco.
Appendix: A list of economists in key states who may be willing to act as industry and third-party spokespersons on the tax issue.
Following is a list of economists in key states who might assist us as experts receiving honoraria. We have begun contacting them to ensure their willingness and expertise. We are asking each about past experience; work with similar issues; previous work with the industry; published articles or research; and availability.
Our intent is to have a group of individuals whom we can call upon as needed to testify, conduct special research and discuss their research projects and/or views on excise taxes with budget officials, potential coalition members, legislators and the media.
The CTJ has been contacted by the Tobacco Institute, and although cigarettes were not on their agenda, they were willing to discuss.
1984 Oct 26: Federal Excise Program of the Tobacco Institute [has handnotes]
- Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ) producing series of brochures with O&M
[Note says "Met with CTJ. See Maureen's memo. Unsatisfactory. We made counter proposal. Names of unions are a must. [Publication should list CTJ membership] resolved."
1985 Dec 12: Annual Report of the Tobacco Institute's Public Relations division lists as associates, the Californian Tax Reform Association.
We believe that the active and creative use of experts — our scientists in particular — gives us an edge. But without question, public smoking is our toughest challenge. A close second is taxation. In 1985, most of our resources in this area were focused on the federal situation.
Organization: California Tax Reform Association. Address: 926 J Street, Suite 1007, Sacramento, CA 95814, 916-446-0145
Likely contact/s (and person responsible for initial contact): Jim McEntee, Director (O&M)
CTRA is probably the most influential state tax organization in the country. McEntee recently participated in a tax seminar in Congressman Stark's district and would be useful in other similar forums. CTRA is a member of the Citizens for Tax Justice network.
The same document also notes:
Organization: Citizens Action Groups in Key States
Likely contact/s (and person responsible for initial contact): Work through Citizens for Tax Justice (O&M)
Possible Opportunities: Member groups of CTJ and other statewide citizens action groups are potential allies — i.e., Ohio Public Interest Coalition,Pennsylvania Public lnterest Coalition, Illinois Public Action Council, and Massachusetts Fair Share.
Any Negatives: Many of these groups will have little sympathy for the tobacco industry.
1985 Dec 12: Annual Report of the Tobacco Institute's Public Relations division lists them as associates:
Nature of Relationship:
- David Wilhelm, Executive Director
- Robert McIntyre, Director of Federal Tax Policy
Initial relationship was established via professional/personal contacts of Jim Savarese; now, Tobacco Industry Labor Management Committee provides support to the organization in the form of in-kind services.
- Conducted press conference for national tax reporters on Treasury I with comments opposing the use of excises.
- Delivered testimony opposing the extension of the 160 cigarette excise to the House Ways & Means Committee.
- Prepared and distributed brochure opposing consumption taxes for use with Members of Congress and grassroots organizations nationwide. Brochure for use at the state level is pending.
- Participated in the economic news service organized by the Committee on Taxation and Economic Growth.
- Provides regular intelligence on positions and opinions of organized labor.
1986 May 6: The April - Monthly Status Report from Ogilvy & Mather to Susan Stuntz at the Tobacco Institute. They are working on:
- Generated eight proposals for research by economists on Social Cost Issue.
- Drafting BNA [Bureau of National Affairs] Op-ed article to run under Ray Scannell's byline. [BC&T Labor/union contact for the tobacco industry]
- Executed Op-Editorial Program for 19 economists in states with Senate Finance Committee Members, including personal letters to all Senators in these states.
- [Citizens for Tax Justice] CTJ/Excise Taxes — agency assisted in planning and orchestrated Dirksen Senate Office Building press briefing on April 21st attended by eight reporters. O&M prepared and mailed 200 press kits. Coverage appeared in the Washington Post, the New York Times etc.
- Agency produced for CTJ bumper stickers and assisted in implementation of Hill event with Senator Bradley and Congressman Rostenkowski.
- Mailed over 400 copies of a follow-up Op-Ed by David Wilhelm.
1986 July: Letterhead has list of Staff, Officers and the extensive Board of Directors
1987 Jan 14: The Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ) and the Tobacco Institute (with the help of Rich Marcus of Ogilvy & Mather) are jointly running a conference. They want help in turning out people from the CART (tobacco's sports sponsorship group ), TRAC (Tax research Analysis Center) and labor unions, Corporations, Trade associations etc.
- Bruce Fisher (research director of CTJ) is an organiser
- Bob McIntyre Director of Federal Tax Policy, CTJ
- David Wilhelm, Exec Director of CTJ
- Linda Tarr-Whelan, Exec Dir of National Center for Policy Alternatives, (author of ACIR study)
- Barry Bosworth, Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution
- Jerome Kurtz, former commissioner, IRS
- Robert Leonard, former commissioner, IRS
- Jeffrey Nedelman, VP Public Affairs, Grocery Manufacturers Association
- John Sweeney, President, Service Employees International Union
- Robert Friedman, President, Corporation for Enterprise Development
1989 June 9: Richard Marcus of Ogilvy & Mather reporting to the Tobacco Institute on its May Activities.
- Taxes: American Agricultural Movement (AAM) ; Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ); Coalition on Human Needs (CHN); League of Rural Voters (LVR); Opportunities Industrialization Centers of America (OIC).
- Public Smoking: Federal Union IAQ Issues (American Federal Government Employees [AFGE]); National Energy Management Institute (NEMI)
- Media Tours: Social Costs Media Tours (Richard Wagner and Bob Tollison); Truth Squad Media Tours [Dave Weeks and Jack Peterson]
- Labor Coalitions: LMC, unions, Pittsburgh project
- Ad Bans: Jolly Ann Davidsons media tours.
1989 Nov: /E The Tobacco Institute budget for 1990 shows under "Excise Issue"
The services of labor lawyer Mike Forscey of Wunder Ryan Cannon & Thelen had been budgeted for $60,000 in 1989 but had cost an estimated $90,000. They were budgeted for $75,000 in 1990. This is probably for labor activities, rather than economists.
- Op-eds earned the economists $3,000. (total $45,000)
- Presentations to conferences earned them $5,000. (total $75,000)
- Economists as witnesses cost TI $30,000 (number not specified)
- Savarese was paid $70,000 pa for 'Economic Consultants" (cut back from a projected $100,000),
- Ogilvy & Mather $250,000 pa. (up from estimated $230,000) for "coalition work"
- Fleishman Hillard (PR) who mainly ran media tours $50,000
- Financial support to Think-tanks (Citizens for Tax Justice $100k; Economic Policy Institute $50k; Coalition on Human Needs $48k; Leadership for the New Century $12k; League for Rural Voters $10k; National Council of Senior Citizens $10k, CART $50k ... with much the same estimated for 1990)
1990: Paper outlining the Tobacco Institute's successes in countering Federal Excise Tax (FET) increases with a number of its coalitions
Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ) held a one-day conference in Washington, D.C., entitled "Growth and Equity: Tax Policy Challenges on the 1990s."
The conference focused on the need for progressive tax policy at the federal level and tracked CTJ Executive Director Robert McIntyre's sentiments expressed in a recent New York Times op-ed.
Senator Bill Bradley delivered the opening remarks in which he argued that the tax burden imposed on working people over the last decade has increased; he called for progressive measures as a remedy. Representatives from labor and business also participated in the conference.
Approximately 60 people attended the event, including members of the media and key staff from congressional tax-writing committees. In addition, C-SPAN televised its coverage of the conference.
1990 June: TI Communications Activity Report of 461 pages has him as an ally on
Page 79. It says he is
Director of Citizens for Tax Justice which receives most of its funding from labor and public-interest groups.
Also quotes is Bruce Fisher, research director for CTJ
1990 Aug: The Tobacco Institute's Public Affairs Management Plan Report. To fight excise tax increases, they have enlisted the
- Consumer Tax Alliance ["considering a media tour program involving three economists"],
- American Agricultural Movement [also writing op-eds for country newspapers - planning a media tour also]
- AFL-CIO [the TI had two lobbyists on the executive]
- Economic Policy Institute, [Aligned with tobacco because they opposed all value-added taxes]
- Citizens for Tax Justice [Ex-Dir Robert McIntyre lobbied for the TI]
- The Coalition on Human Needs [Ex-Dir Susan Rees lobbied for the TI],
- National Chamber Foundation.
The National Chamber Foundation (NCF) prepared a white paper, "Excise Taxes in the American Fiscal System," by economist Richard Vedder. Vedder examined the utility and efficiency of excise taxes and concludes that "new excises are unwarranted on almost every possible economic and policy basis." In late July, the paper was distributed to budget negotiators; it will be forwarded to the media and other policy interests in August.
[Vedder was a member of the Tobacco Institute's cash-for-comments network, and they were given the right to review the drafts]
1990 Aug 3: Sam Chilcote at the Tobacco Institute has advised the Members of the Executive Committee of plans to develop a celebrity speakers program using academics and other expert consultants. There are offer the speakers both money and personal promotion:
[W]hile it is clear that there are a number of individuals who can and are speaking out on our issues independent of The Institute, there also is much more that could be done. There are, for example, opportunities to develop higher profiles for those individuals with whom we enjoy an existing relationship, and to increase within the media an awareness of their availability.
He then lists:
There also are a number of individuals who have been identified who do not currently have a relationship with the industry, but whose views appear to be compatible with our own. Should the Executive Committee decide that it wants to proceed with an expansion of our speakers' program, these individuals would be contacted to determine their interest in our issues.
The addition of new speakers to our program will be expensive. Most of these individuals command substantial consulting fees; media and other activity will require a new commitment of funds, although an exact amount cannot be determined until candidates have been approached.
This person along with about a hundred others, is thought to be a potential speaker and is credited with recent achievements on behalf of the Tobacco Institute. The category heading was
- Authors, newscasters and newspaper columnists
- Well-known politicians, political aides, White House staffers, State authorities, agency administrators, etc
- Heads of various coalition groups (American Advertising Federation. etc)
- Cash-for-comments legal and business academics from Savarese's network list.
- Cash-for-comments 'risk assessment' academics and promoter.
- Cash-for-comment experts in indoor air pollution and ventilation systems.
- Cash-for-comment academic economists
- Many other collaborators and some likely allies:
Allies and Coaltion Groups:
Citizens for Tax Justice
10/89 Press conference for release of corporate "freeloaders" report
2/90 Testified before the House Ways & Means Committee on the Tax Reform Act of 1986
3/90 Press conference in Washington, D.C., on Capitol Hill. Appeared with Rep. Gephardt and 11 other Members calling for progressive federal tax policy
Press conference in Washington, D.C., in response to Rostenkowski revenue plan
5/90 One-day conference in Washington, D.C., "Growth and Equity: Tax Policy Challenges in the 1990s" Op-ed published in the New York Times
Progressive federal tax policy options discussed in Party Lines
7/90 Press event in Washington, D.C., on progressive S&L tax option
1991 Jan 25: Bob McIntyre was at a Tobacco Industry Labor Management Committee meeting in Washington, representing the CTJ. Note the Jim Savarese ran the meeting.
1991 June 21: Tobacco Institute report:
- Taxpayers for a Better Indiana, a coalition of religious, social service, business and labor organizations, held its founding convention in Indianapolis on June 19. David Wilhelm of Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ) spoke on the Indiana tax system and proposals for making it more fair.
- This weekend, at the request of the [Tobacco Institute's] Labor Management Committee, consultant in Washington, CTJ's Wilhelm, is giving a series of fair-tax presentations to several groups thoughout the state, including the Washington State Federation of Firefighters and the Democratic State Legislators Caucus . Several broadcast interviews also are scheduled.
1992 May 18: Philip Morris, Issues Management Weekly. Report
On 5/12, K. Chaikin and me [Lance Pressl] met with Bob McIntyre of CTJ [Citizens for Tax Justice]. Part of our discussion focused on CTJ's (most likely Mclntyre's) position on the broad issue of universal healthcare and the organization's willingness to sponsor a study that would dissect costs on the social security and healthcare systems.
Potential problem—they favor universal healthcare. Also, the study idea was not accepted. Another group will be solicited and selected by 5/31/92. Probably, a new group run by Duane Parde formerly of ALEC. This information has been shared with D. Nicoli of our Washington office .
1992 Oct: TI. Budget $130,000 -  p 4-26 for Excise Issue project
1994 Feb: Steve Parrish report for PM - actions with Policy Institutes against Clinton health Plan (See Roy Marden monthly report also)
Citizens for Tax Justice (CT.I)/Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy(ITEP) As a leading labor-backed organization, CTJ/ITEP and we have worked closely to highlight the regressive nature of tobacco excise taxes, and, in particular, how the problem would be exacerbated by passage of the Clinton plan. As this group has a strong voice in the labor movement, we plan to reinforce this message through the mobilization of this important constituency.
1997: Citizens for Tax Justice is listed in Payments from PM to Policy Institutes 
2002 Dec: Wash Post article
"If we take out Social Security, the poor will look very lightly taxed" said Robert S McIntyre of Citizens for Tax Justice a tax research group backed by organized labor."