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Philip R Morey
Philip Morey was an indoor environmental scientist who moved from the National Institutes of Occupational Science and Health (NIOSH), briefly to Honeywell which was establishing itself in the IAQ diagnostics business, and then onto Clayton Environmental Services, a company that specialised in vaccum cleaning of heating and air-conditioning systems (HVACs).
The tobacco industry's interest in Philip Morey seems mainly to be on his membership and chairmanship of various standards setting committees. However they also quoted him extensively during OSHA and Congressional hearings since he emphasises the role played by fungal growths and bacterial contaminsation in sick building syndrome.
He was therefore a handy source of quotes to divert attention away from ETS as a cause of building IAQ problems. It must be remembered that, at that time, air ducting was often lined internally with material on which fungus could grow in the right conditions. Today, any insulation is applied to the ducting externally so that the duct doesn't provide a growth medium.
Morey's obvious standing in the scientific community further enhansed his value to the tobacco industry, in this indirect way — since he was focussed on microorganisms and the maintenance of the systems, rather than the absolute source of the major pollutants. He was also important for his influence as:
- a member of the ASHRAE Environmental Health Committee,
- a member of the ASHRAE Research and Technology Committee,
- a member of the ACGIH [American Conference of Indusrial Hygenists] Bioaerosol Committee.
- and chaired the ASTM D2205.06 [International standards organisation] Subcommittee on Bioaerosols (which was an important committee for the tobacco industry because it set the standards for IAQ testing.)
However there is no suggesting that they managed to influence him in any way.
Prior to joining the NIOSH and then venturing into the world of commerce,, Morey had been a professor of biological sciences at the Texas Tech University.
1976: Legionairre's disease, a bacterial infection first discovered in a Philadelphia Hotel. Twenty nine people died in that outbreak and 153 others were infected, apparently from stagnant water sitting in a cooling tower atop the hotel.
1984 Nov: The American Institute of Architects held a symposium designed to alert architects, engineers and builders to the problem of indoor air pollution.
1985 Jan 7: Newsweek article on Sick Building Syndrome quoted Philip Morey at NIOSH saying the contamination in the air-conditioner drain-pans in a Washington government building was "comparable to a chicken coop or swine-confinement facility". James Repace of the EPA blamed ETS for up to 5,000 lung-cancer deaths per year. Radon was also highly controversial.
The period 1980-85 marked the beginning of the serious IAQ-ventilation/sick building controversy.
1985 Oct 2 - 4: Indoor Air Quality Symposium at Atlanta Georgia. It is run by the Georgia Institute of Technology, and cosponsored by the IAQ committee of the American Industrial Hygiene Association [which had many links to the tobacco industry]. Morey is listed from the NIOSH as a speaker. All speakers on the list appear to be genuine academic or agency researchers.
1986 March 20: Karen Clayton reports in "Memo to Messrs Rupp and Jacobs" [two top tobacco lawyers] on the Honeywell and American Lung Association Conference on The Character and Control of Indoor Air Pollution".
[Karen Clayton is a lawyer with tobacco law firm Covington & Burling]
Jim Woods, Technical Director, Indoor Air Quality Diagnostics Program", Honeywell was the chairman, and Philip Morey spoke as part of a team. ASHRAE, the report says, is against government regulation of IAQ and believes it is best left to the private sector.
Douglas Greenaway, of the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) also spoke — but he refused to discuss matters of liability for IAQ problems.
1986 April 20: Speaking for NIOSH at ASHRAE IAQ '86 conference
1986 May 5: Article "Does your office make you sick?" in the Washington post now quotes him extensively, listing him as a senior industrial hygienist at Honeywell's new division on Indoor Air Quality Diagnostics.
This article is a bit of promotion for Honeywell's new IAQ Diagnostics division. The focus is exclusively on the possible fungal and bacterial infection possibilities.
1988 May: He is speaking at an Indoor Air Quality conference put on by the Consumer Federation of America. He is now with Clayton Environmental Consultants. The moderator was James Woods of Honeywell.
1989 July 11: Frank Daylor, Principle Scientists at the Philip Morris Research Center in Richmond, is writing to "Phil" (Morey). Clearly Morey is the secretary of some scientific organization which has a number of Philip Morris staff scientists as members.
1994 Aug 5: US Department of Labor has him listed among the "Witnesses for Indoor Air Quality Hearing"
He is from Clayton Environmental Associates of Pennsylvania and a 'sick building syndrome" expert.
"Dr Morey will discuss microbiological contamination of indoor environments and the resulting disease of the inhabitants."
1992 Apr 13 - 14: 5th National Indoor Air Pollution conference, University of Tulsa. Many case studies in the area of biological contamination.
1992: Ed Fickes is a non-voting member of the ASHRAE's SSPC 62 committee, and a member of the Health & Comfort subcommittee — he is also a contractor to the Tobacco Institute.
He has prepared a biog-outline of all the members of the committee for the tobacco industry. This RJR document has his contacts as Steve Curl and Howard Toft.
Philip Morey is a IAQ Consultant with Clayton Environmental Consultants in Wayne Pennsylvania, He is also a non-voting member of ASHRAE's SSPC62 committee and a member of the Health & Comfort sub-committee (along with Fickes).
Fickes gives Morey's professional background as being "Yale PhD, microbiologist," and say he was "once at NIOSH, then [went] to Honeywell, was working with Woods, per Daniel Kurtz (r&d)"
His RJR contact is David Taylor and he is neutral on smoking — ie not an anti-smoker. (usually code for 'recruitable')
• Daniel Kurtz was a scientist working for RJ Reynolds Tobacco.
• Woods was James E Woods, Professor of Building Construction at the Virginia Polytechnique Institute. Fickes reports that Wood's "Bus. Affiliations : may be contract to Philip Morris"
1994 Nov: [later report Fall 1996] On the tactics used by the tobacco industry to take OSHA by surprise.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) knew that when public hearings on its proposed indoor air regulations began Sept. 20 in Washington, DC, the tobacco industry would bring the war over smoking to the agency's home court.
[The OSHA received some 100,000 responses] Many of the speakers were solicited by Washington, DC's Bonner and Associates ,a "grass-roots lobbying firm" which has performed extensive work for tobacco giant Philip Morris.
But OSHA guessed wrong about the industry's tactics.The agency expected a blitzkrieg but found itself in a war of attrition. lnstead of hordes of protesters wielding placards and signs, the tobacco industry sent lawyers armed with arsenals of thorny epidemiological questions about dozens of studies and reports on smoking.
OSHA's first-day schedule called for John Martonik, acting director of health standards programs,and Michael Silverstein, the agency's policy director, to give opening statements. They would be followed by Clayton Environmental's Philip Morey , the first of 16 witnesses called by the agency.
Instead, it was a day and a half until the first witness could be called. By then, Morey had been rescheduled and the tobacco industry's strategy was apparent.
1996 May 31: Morey was leader of a team seeking a CIAR grant to look at fungal causes of IAQ irritation.