This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.
Lawrence L Kupper
— One of the more useful (to the tobacco industry) of the scientists seeking secret grants — and, in return, providing witness services. —
Some key documents
• Uni of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
• There are 1042 records in the UCSF tobacco archives. His associate was Joseph Janis.
1977: Special Account No.4 Report of the CTR.
The following represent present and known future commitments of Special Account No 4.
- The immediate past audit (the six months ended 8/31/77) and the next audit (covering the six months ended 2/28/78) will reflect
various specific payments, such as those to:
- Dr Louis A Soloff, in the amount of $100 and
- Dr L Kupper, in the amount of $2,250.
These compensation expenses occur from time to time in connection with consultations with these scientists relating to questions that arise in various apects of the smoking and health controversy.
While there are no specific commitments other than above listed, it is likely that future periods will reflect payments to these or other scientists similar to those made in the past.
1978: Janis, Joseph (Joe) School of Public Health, Uni of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) He is on a "Dear Tim" basis with tobacco lawyer and paymaster, Timothy Finnegan back in 1978. He was receiving $12,500 while doing his doctoral work on the statistics, then he joined the faculty.
1982 Mar 18: PhD Professor of Biostatistics. School of Public Health. Uni of North Carolina at Chapel Hill He has been making pro-industry statements at Congressional hearings over the Comprehensive Smoking Prevention, Education Act. Every other witness listed here is a long-term tobacco lackey.
1982 March 18: list of witnesses and witness statements on hand to counter the hearings on Comprehensive Smoking Prevention Education Act
Lawrence L Kupper, PhD, Professor of Biostatistics, School of Public Health
Univ of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
[These are the witnesses who figured in the 1982 hearings, that Horace Kornegay was interrogated over on 19 Nov 1997 ]
1982 June: Lawrence Kupper statement, at some Congressional Hearing begins with the standard "Inverted Reality" statement
My appearance at this hearing is voluntary and the opinions expressed are personal, not representing those of any organization. and it concludes with the standard -
The belief that smoking is a cause of lung cancer can be questioned in light of the documented sources of bias attendant with epidemiologic studies of the smoking-lung cancer relationship
1982 Aug 19: Details of their Committments at this day shows Kupper, L Special Projects A/C #120 is for $80,700 (Authorised in 1982) of which $20,175 had already been paid.
1982 Aug 31: The Special Projects A/Cs for the Six months ending August 31 1982 shows he had received only $800 (for this latest six months) through these secret payment channels
1983 Feb 2: The Council for Tobacco Research advises the Committee of Counsel that they need to top up Special Projects Funds by another $150,000. There are even more multiple-payments listed.
- TD Sterling for $324,060 + $369,690 + $207,913 plus Simon Frazer University for $52,950 + $60,400 = $1,025,013.
- Carl C Selter for (nil) plus Peabody Museum for $70,000 + $70,000 + $66,000 + $66,000.[Making quarterly payments via the Museum]
- Harold Perry, two payments $98,822 + $70,520 = $169,342
- Arvin S Glicksman — $19,600 [new]
- John Salvaggio — $58,055 + $64,609 = $122,664
- Duncan Hutcheon — $99,250 [new]
- Richard Hickey — $94,263
- Darrell Spackman — $86,800 [new]
- AB Janson — $60,000 [new]
- Henry Rothschild — $55,000 [new]
- John Roberts — $49,511
- Lawrence Kupper — $17,284 [new]
- Roger Bick — $36,226 [new]
- C Schrauzer — $20,000
- E Eysenck (should be Hans) — $66,600
1983 Apr 5: The Tobacco Institute, through Shook Hardy & Bacon has been organising scientific responses to Congressman Thomas Bliley's (R-VA tobacco friendly Representative) queries. This memo details what should and should not be included in the package to Bliley. Some of the replies have apparently been unsatisfactory. He is on the list along with about 31 other shonky scientists. All are well-known and well-documented tobacco industry lackeys.
1983 Apr 22: CTR Special Account #4 for the Six Months to Feb 28 1983 shows that he received $1,300 through this secret payment account.
1983 May 5 - 12: Tobacco Institute witnesses before a range of Congressional Committees and Subcommittees in the period 1982-83. All 39 scientists presented testimony against proposals of the Comprehensive Smoking Prevention Education Act in 1982 and similar legislation introduced in the House and Senate in 1983.
- Domingo M. Aviado, M.D., president, Atmospheric Health Sciences, Inc.; adjunct professor of pharmacology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark
- Rodger L Bick, M.D., medical director, San Joaquin Hematology and Oncology Medical Group; assistant professor of medicine, School of Medicine, UCLA Center for the Health Sciences, Los Angeles
- Richard J. Bing, M.D., professor of medicine emeritus, University of Southern California; director of experimental cardiology, Huntington. Medical Research Institutes, Pasadena -
- Theodore H. Blau, Ph.D., private practice of clinical and child psychology, Tampa
- Walter M. Booker, Ph.D., professor emeritus of pharmacology, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.; president, Walter M. Booker & Associates, Inc., Washington, D.C.
- Oliver Gilbert Brooke. M.D., FRCP, Head of Neonatology, Department of Child Health, St.George's Hospital Medical School, University of London, England
- Barbara B. Brown, Ph.D., former chief of experimental physiology, Veterans Administration Hospital, Sepulveda, Cal.
- Victor B. Buhler, M.D., pathologist, Liberty Hospital, Liberty, Mo.
- P R. J. Burch, Ph.D., professor. department of medical physics, University of Leeds, England (The evidence of Prof. Burch is to be found in the Congressional Record of August 11, 1982, pp. 3830-32.)
- Hans J. Eysenck, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor of psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London, England
- Jack Mathews Farris, M.D., emeritus professor of surgery, University of California, San Diego
- . Sherwin J. Feinhandler, Ph.D., former lecturer in anthropology, Harvard Medical School; president, Social Systems Analysts, Inc., Watertown, Mass.
- Edwin R. Fisher, M.D., professor of pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; director of laboratories, Shadyside Hospital, Pittsburgh
- H. Russell Fisher, M.D., emeritus professor of pathology, University of Southern California; consultant, Memorial Hospital, Glendale, Cal.
- Arthur Furst, Ph.D., distinguished university professor (emeritus) and director (emeritus), Institute of Chemical Biology, University of San Francisco, San Francisco.
- Jean D. Gibbons, Ph.D., professor of statistics, chairman of applied statistics program, Graduate School, University of Alabama
- Katherine McDermott Herrold, M.D., medical director (retired), U.S. Public Health Service, Washington, D.C.
- Richard J. Hickey, Ph.D., senior research investigator, department of statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
- Robert Casad Hockett, Ph.D., research director, Council for Tobacco Research-USA, Inc., New York
- Duncan Hutcheon, M.D., Ph.D., professor of pharmacology and medicine, College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark
- Leon O. Jacobson, M.D., physician-scientist emeritus, University of Chicago; chairman, Scientific Advisory Board, Council for Tobacco Research- USA, Inc., New York
- Lawrence L Kupper, PhD., professor of biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
- Hiram T. Langston, M.D., clinical professor of surgery (emeritus), Northwestern University Medical School; chairman, department of surgery, St. Joseph's Hospital, Chicago
- Mariano F. La Via, M.D., professor of laboratory medicine and director, division of diagnostic immunology, Medical University of South Carolina
- Stephen C. Littlechild, Ph.D., professor of commerce, head of department of industrial economics and business studies, Faculty of Commerce and Social Science, University of Birmingham, England
- Eleanor J. Macdonald, professor emeritus of epidemiology, University of Texas System Cancer Center, M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston.
- Harold Mendelsohn, Ph.D., director, Center for Mass Communications Research and Policy, University of Denver
- L.G.S. Rao, Ph.D., senior biochemist, Bellshill Maternity Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland
- Jay Roberts, Ph.D., professor and chairman, department of pharmacology, Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
- Henry Rothschild, M.D., Ph.D., professor of medicine and anatomy, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University, New Orleans
- Henry I. Russek, M.D., private practice of cardiology, Boca Raton, Fla.; formerly director of cardiovascular research, U S. Public Health Service Hospital, Staten Island
- Bernice C. Sachs, M.D., psychiatrist, Cooperative Plan, Seattle
- John E. Salvaggio, M.D., chairman and Henderson professor, department of medicine, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans
- Gerhard N. Schrauzer, Ph.D., professor of chemistry, University of California, San Diego
- Carl C. Seltzer, Ph.D., honorary research associate, Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
- Sheldon C. Sommers, M.D., clinical professor of pathology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University; scientific director, Council for Tobacco Research-USA, Inc., New York
- Charles D. Spielberger, Ph.D., psychology professor, director, Center for Research in Community Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa
- Theodor D. Sterling, Ph.D., university research professor, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia
1983 Jun 6: Kupper, L gave evidence for companies at Hatch and Waxman inquiries in 1982. Have applied new techniques to the statitical analysis of lung-cancer mortality trends. Now want $60,000 support for a year to write articles and reports for medical magazines.
statistics - new techniques applied to lung-cancer mortality 
1983 July: /E No mention of funding by tobacco - only by NCI
"One can reasonably maintain the view that smokers are constitutionally different from non-smokers, and that such consitutional factors cause such individuals both to smoke and to develop lung cancer." Under this plausible hypothesis, then, smoking is an outcome variable just like lung cancer, being a manifestation of the constitutional factors uniquely possessed by people who choose to smoke." He then quotes Burch and studies of twins to show that smokers are constitutionally different.
He also claim that himself and Janis have "recently demonstrated by sophisticated statisical methodology, the existance of a particular birth cohort (i.e. that group individuals born around the end of the 19th C) which appears to be much more prone to develop lung cancer than do other birth cohorts born either before or after than time. (High risk birth cohorts — suggest genetic, prenatal and neonatal factors can be important determinants of subsequent disease susceptibility)
He dismisses the Seventh-Day Adventist and doctor studies because
"it is well known that doctors different from the average person in very many respects; and, members of religious sects which prohibit the use of alcohol and tobacco generally are much different personality-wise from the general population." Also the diagnosis of lung cancer is a difficult clinical problem, and diognositc criteria have changed considerably over the years. He also quotes Feinstein on selection bias and concludes:
The belief that smoking is a cause of lung cancer can be questioned in light of the documented sources of bias attenant with epidemiological studies of the smoking-lung cancer relationship. He then dismisses the Surgeon General reports and says "the fact that so many studies have produced a positive association" should be ignored because "repeatability does not imply accuracy" and so "one study free from all bias  is worth more than a thousand biased studies." Two months later the CTR audit showed that he was still owed $60,000 of the $80,000 secret (Special Account #4 )grant allocate to him for that year. 
1985 Dec 30: /E List of legal actions being taken against the tobacco companies says:
While it is now a moot point, R.J. Reynolds named its expert witnesses on December 16. Twenty-five experts were named, but we will not identify all of them here.
Prominent experts from previous tobacco litigation include Theodore Blau, Arthur Furst, Lawrence Kupper, Victor Rosen, William Seaman, Sheldon Charles Sommers, John Etling, Roger McCarthy, William Ober and Karl Jonas.
- Bea J. van den Berg, M.D., director, child health and development studies, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley
[Every name on this list is a dedicated, long-term tobacco-friendly scientist, who persisted in working for the tobacco industry many years passed the time when it was still remotely possible for the gullible, or the stupid, to still believe that cigarettes were 1) not addictive 2) not a health hazard to smokers 3) not a health hazard to non-smokers.]
1986 Sep 10: Shook Hardy & Bacon writes to the members of the Committee of Council:
Drs. Lawrence L. Kupper and Joseph M. Janis have requested a one year continuation of their age-period-cohort analysis research project in the amount of $41,200. We recommend that the project be approved as a CTR Special Proj'ect.
For the last several years, Drs. Kupper, Janis and their colleagues have focused their attention on the investigation of "high risk" birth cohorts. Their work suggests the importance of genetic, prenatal and neonatal factors as potential determinants of subsequent disease susceptibility. On the basis of descriptive statistics, they have hypothesized the existence of a definite cohort effect in lung cancer mortality data.
1987 Jan 27: Shook Hardy & Bacon billing shows Kupper being paid
12/23/66 Dr.Lawrence L Kupper—consultation fee $6,600.00
1989 Apr 28: Ten years after the initial 1979 grant for the cohort study, Kupper and Janis were still receiving $41,200 a year from the CTR's secret Special Project Funds "to continue their efforts and publicise their claims".
1992 Dec 31: Report on Special Account #4 A/C No 120 126 139
He is at the Uni of North Carolina, Chapel Hill These are the Council for Tobacco Research: Log - Special Projects
[This document appears to have been made privileged and disappeared.]
1994 Sep 27: The List of Special Projects administered by the CTR has a section on Kupper and Janis. See pages 95 and 117, 120 and 134. These show the amoung supposedly paid and details of one piece of research and publications. (at a minimum, in the $303,600 range)
1997 Nov 19: In the deposition of Horace Kornegay [Chairman of the Tobacco Institute] he is being examined in a court case. He was asked if he knew a list of prominent tobacco-friendly scientists and academics who had worked extensively for the industry, and and whether the Tobacco Institute prepared the testimony that they had given at various inquiries. [ Fred Panzer had already admitted that they routinely did] (See page 16) Kupper is discussed, but Kornegay suffers one of his many unexplained memory losses; he plays dumb, but is asked about:
- Dr Buhler;
- Dr SC Littlechild;
- Leonard Zahn; Knowledge of Special Account 4 or 5 (No);
- Dr Aviado;
- Dr Gary Huber ("very vaguely")
- Dr Theodor Sterling ("heard the name");
- Dr Kotin (No);
- Dr Theodore Blau;
- Dr Arthur Furst;
- Dr Sheldon Sommers ("Sommons ?")
- Edward Horrigan;
- Dr Edwin Fisher;
- Dr Duncan Hutcheon;
- Dr Hans Eysenck (No)
- Roger D Blackwell,
- Yoram J Wind,
- Dr Bea J van den Berg,
- Oliver G Brooke MD,
- Walter M Booker,
- Lawrence Kupper,
- Katherine McDermott Herrold.
Q. Burns W Roper?
[The questioning then continues with a list of other well-known tobacco scientists and academics]
A. Yeah, I've heard of — I've heard of Dr Roper
Q. What's your recollection?
A. He's a pollster
Q. Did he do work for the Tobacco Institute
A. Roper I believe he's — you know, one of these opinion poll people. Roper. Sort of like Gallup - he has done some wrok for The Institute
Q. What's your recoolection of what he's done for the Institute
A. I can't articluate it other than to say he took some surveys. That's his main line of work