This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.
— A Vice President of the Hospital Corporation of America, who worked for the tobacco industry on the side. —
Howard is obviously some sort of "cash-for-comments" health admistrator who isn't squeamish about supporting the Merchants of Death if it earns him a quick buck or two.
Some key documents
• See his CV
1981 Aug: Joined HCA as Vice Presdient
1984 Sept 24: To Peter Sparber (Tobacco Institute) cc Trish Milita (Ogilvy & Mather PR) from Rick Sullivan (A-K Sullivan in Washington DC) [Note: A-K Associates had both a Washington DC and a Sacramento office - so Jim Smith is probably James H Smith]
"I spoke to Jim Smith of HCA last Friday evening about setting up a meeting between you, other TI officials and Sam Howard, [in Washington] Jim reminded me that he often works closely on tax issues with Chuck Merin of the TI Federal Relations deparment. He thinks highly of Chuck ....
[Howard was Vice President and Treasurer of HCA]
1985 Jan 24: Fred Panzer to William Kloepfer at the Tobacco Institute.
Attached is a copy of the article written by Sam Howard and edited by our consultant Rick Sullivan. Also attached is a letter to the editor of the [New England Journal of Medicine] NEJM from Howard.
Both pieces are in the hands of Jim Smith of Hospital Corp of America awaiting Sam's final approval, expected very soon, according to Rick,
[This suggests that the Hospital Corporation of America (or at least a couple of their executives) were in bed with the tobacco industry. Rick Sullivan was a lobbyist with A-K Associates (later with Fleishman-Hillard)]
1985 Jun 25: Tobacco Institute Media Relations Plan: Taxes project (supervisor was Fred Panzer)
Op-ed articles from 42 economists [in the network] 17 drafted; 9 appeared; 4 promised.
Federal Relations [division] asked to send to members of Congress for insertion [in the Congressional Records]. State Activities Division (SAD) asked to send to state legislators.
Letter to the Editor, NEJM fom Sam Howard — written.
Letter to the Editor, NEJM from Sam Howard, published in 4/4 issue.
1985 Oct: /E Tobacco Institute's list of available PR Resources for its Regional Directors. It lists:
- Medicare - Is There a Crisis? (1985)
One-page copy of Sam Howard (Hospital Corporation of America, RCA) article published in Coalition Report, a publication of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. [It] makes the point that the Medicare trust fund is not in danger of going bankrupt as predicted and hence earmarking of the cigarette excise tax is premature.
- "The Medicare Debate"
One-page copy of Sam Howard (HCA) letter to the editor of the New England Journal of Medicine, April 1985
Howard contends that the Medicare Trust Fund is no longer in danger of bankruptcy and allows that neither "new sources of financing [excise taxes] nor budgetary outlays are immediately necessary."
- "With the Medicare Crisis Over, There Is Time To Plan Systemwide Changes"
One-page copy of Sam Howard (HCA) article published in Business and Health, May 1985. [It] notes the 1985 Medicare Board of Trustees report which concludes that contrary to earlier predictions, the Medicare trust fund is not in danger of bankruptcy. [It also] Introduces new ways to finance the program; excise taxes are not mentioned Mentions move toward containing health care costs and board commitment to start making the "right" decisions about the Medicare program - General distribution
- MEDICARE - Is the Crisis Over
Six-page brochure; illustrated version of the Howard article published in Business and Health, May 1985
Selective distribution and as enclosure Excise Tax File
Available upon request; allow three weeks for delivery
1986 Jan: Tobacco Institute's Resource List for Regional Directors in 1986 — directed at fighting earmarking of excise taxes for healthcare — includes the above booklets and articles. They are still promoting the use of Howards articles.
1989 Jan: Howard resigned from HCA and became Chairman of Phoenix Holdings.
1997 Dec 16: Phoenix Healthcare and Health Net complete their merger, even though banks refuse to finance it (The Tennessean 12/16, Bell).
Phoenix chairman Sam Howard says the deal was financed by Phoenix, Baptist and St. Thomas hospitals and Tenet Healthcare, all of which now own pieces of the company. Phoenix and Health Net are losing money. Their merger creates the third-largest managed-care organization in TennCare, the state's Medicaid reform program.