This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.
Donald E (Don) Gardner
Donald Gardner was an ex-EPA independent inhalation toxicologist who, over the years, has flirted with the tobacco industry in various roles including an application to head the industry's (fake 'independent) Council on Indoor Air Research (CIAR) . He spent some time with the US Army's biological warfare unit, and has worked in a range of other professional position that would have given him an immense range of experience.
Gardner clearly knew that the CIAR was a tobacco industry operation, but that didn't appear to worry him. When he was not given the job (though clearly very highly qualified), he set up his own Inhalation Toxicology Associates service business, and founded and edited Inhalation Toxicology , a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
He continued to consult with RJ Reynolds over the year on their attempts to develop the SPA/Premier and the later Eclipse drug-delivery systems. These are genuine attempts to solve some of the health problems associated with cigarettes, so no one should object to theis type of consultancy work.
However the consulting association he had with Reynolds perhaps should not have carried over to his editing a peer-reviewed scientific magazine on a subject central to their smoking and health problems.
There are 279 documents returned from a search on "Donald E Gardner" and
1931 Nov 1: Born Council Buffs, Iowa
1955: - BS Biology/Chemistry - Creighton University
1958: - MS, Microbiology - Creighton University, School of Medicine
1958–60: After receiving his Master's degree, Gardner spent two years
teaching at the University of Nebraska,
1960–61: Research Immunologist with the Department of Defense, US Biological Laboratories , Marylands
1962–64: Active duty as a Research Microbiologist with the US Army Chemical Corps, Biological proving grounds in Utah
1964: Research Microbiologist, National Air Pollution Control Administration in Cincinnati, Ohio. (absorbed into the EPA.) Over the next seven years, rose to the position of Deputy Chief of the Pathology Section.
1971: PhD, Environmental Health - University of Cincinnati, School of Medicine, Institute of Environmental Health.
As an indication of the esteem with which the EPA held Gardner, he was one of a select few sent to the Institute of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati School of Medicine, to obtain his Doctorate in Environmental Health at the government's expense.
1971: Gardner transfered to that EPA's Experimental Biology Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina .
1977: Working for Health Effects Research Laboratory of the EPA
1980–82: Named Director of EPA Inhalation Toxicology Division
While at the EPA, Gardner testified on several occasions at public hearings, such as Congressional subcommittees, on the setting of standards for air pollutants. He has given hundreds of papers at international scientific meetings on subjects of interest to the CIAR, and he has extensive experience at writing criteria documents for both the EPA and WHO on air pollutant health effects. These documents were then used by the EPA Administrator to set standards for such pollutants as nitrous oxides, ozone and sulfur oxides.
Through such activities he has gained a worldwide reputation in the field of air pollution
1982 October: joined Northrup Services, Research Triangle Park, NC
Since his retirement from the EPA, Gardner has continued to serve on that Agency's review panels for research proposals and for critiquing the work produced. He also is active on the review panels of the National Institute of Health, the Department of Defense, Electric Power Research Institute and the Health Effects Institute on matters involving inhalation toxicology.
Northrop Services currently generates revenues of approximately $30 million and employs 350 people, 250 of which are directly employed on EPA contracts. As a point of interest, since joining Northrop, Gardner has done some work for RJR Tobacco (indirectly through law firms) and meets regularly with Dr Bob Bruce of RJR Tobacco's Law Department and with Dr Tony Colucci.
1985 March 18: Now working with Northrup Corporation and President of the "Inhalation Specialty Section" of the Society of Toxicology.
1985 March 18: Newly established "Inhalation Specialty Section" of the Society of Toxicology.
- Donald E Gardner of Northrup Corp (ex EPA) is President,
- Roger O McClellan, of Lovelace Biomedical Emv. Res Inst is Presiden-elect
- Hanspeter R Witschi, Oak Ridge National Lab is VP
- James T Stevens, Ciba-Geigy Corp is past President
- Robert T Drew, Brookhaven National Lab
- Basil KJ Leong, UpJohn Co
- Roger Henderson, Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute
- Harold N MacFarland, Consultant in Toxicology
1987 Sep He was a Candidate for the Position of Executive Director of the CIAR . He is making $100,000 base plus $15k ps in stock options, plus $20-30k in private consulting.
Gardner has a high level of interest in the position under discussion, especially if it were to be located at Research Triangle Park (RTP). -It is probable, in fact, that if the Center were to be located elsewhere, he would not be a viable candidate.
He has no particular concern about being supported by the tobacco industry, so long as the Center is able to maintain its independence and credibility. He does recognize the need for, and, in fact, would seek input from the political side of the equation (read the Tobacco Institute).
1988: Founder and Editor of a new new journal "Inhalation Toxicology." (still not published when this letter was sent in Aug 1987) He is also a candidate for Vice-President and then President of the American College of Toxicology. He is obvioulsy keen to get the CIAR job and is promoting his credentials to influence others, rather than his scientific skills.
See Page 8
1988 June: He is on the list of scientists enlisted to peer-review the science behind the Premier cigarette. RJ Reynolds called this the Spa or Alpha project.
This document outlines the full extent of their efforts to enlist the scientific community behind this "less-hazardous' cigarette. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jqm64d00/pdf
1988 July: to 1996 Following this document there are no other documents in the archives until 1996.
The CIAR position went to one of the tobacco industry's inner circle.
After 1996 there are only a few scattered scientific references followed by some work on the Eclipse cigarette by RJ Reynolds — a second attempt by the company at a Premier type non-burning drug delivery system.
1996 Oct: He is sitting on a Scientific Advisory Panel (put together by Bernard M Wagner Associates) along with Gary Huber, Rudolph Jaegar, and Gary Burger (ex CIAR Board member and R&D at RJR).
1999 Jan 27: - Feb 1 RJ Reynolds accounts on the Bahamas junket in the middle of winter (Jan 27 to Feb 1) says:
Dr. Gardner was invited by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco to participate on an Expert Panel to review research on ECLIPSE. The meeting of the Expert Panel took place In Nassau, Bahamas on January 27 - February 1
He is being reimbursed expenses of $1,198. He took his wife, but RJR would only pay for one air-ticket.
He is now the principle of Inhalation Toxicology Associates, Inc of Raleigh NC.
1999 Jul 21.: As editor of Inhalation Toxicology magazine, he is sending a manuscript to James Swauger at RJ Reynolds, asking them to act as a peer-reviewers. The article is by Drs Haman and Bonin — but does not deal specifically with tobacco smoke.
2000 Feb 16: He is being paid $8,800 for professional consulting services to RJ Reynolds Tobacco at the request of Dr Gary T Burger, from January 17 through February 4, 2000. This work is still on the Eclipse cigarette. He charges them $250 per hour.
2001 March 30 - 31: He is being paid $11,705 for attending an Eclipse Expert Panel meeting in San Francisco.
2005 May: Eclipse Science Advisory Board has said the new cigarette "supports the claims". The cigarette is due for test marketing, and the SAB report is being published by Gardner in Inhalation Toxicology magazine.
Note: Paper They Wrote appears in Journal of Inhalation Toxicology , Vol. 12, 2000, which includes an extensive list of each person's credentials.
Evaluation of all pertinent chemistry, biology, including human studies - Published Inhalation Toxicology, October 2000
- Chemistry of mainstream smoke from Eclipse is much simpler
- Biological activity of Eclipse mainstream smoke and smoke condensate is
- Eclipse may reduce the risk of inflammatory disease, changes in cellular
activity, pulmonary clearance, pulmonary permeability, etc.
- Eclipse produces negligible amounts of sidestream smoke.