This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.
Associates for Research into the Science of Enjoyment
(Originally Associates for Research in Substances of Enjoyment.)
The cleverness of ARISE was that it attracted the uncritical attention of journalists who saw it as promoting the creed: "People should be allowed to live a life of moderate hedonism" which they (and most people) found highly attractive.
It also appeared to use science to counter the nagging of the "wowsers", "nay sayers", "Nanny-Staters", "pleasure police" and the "politically correct".
Unfortunately it was also a PR operation, secretly promoting a deadly product.
Associates for Research into the Science of Enjoyment (ARISE) is a nonprofit organization primarily funded by tobacco industry and led by psychologist David Warburton of the University of Reading in the United Kingdom.
The group's stated purpose is to "discuss the ways in which Ôeveryday pleasures' such as eating chocolate, smoking, drinking tea, coffee, and alcohol, contribute to the quality of life." Warburton is frequently cited by the tobacco companies as the primary support for their claim that nicotine is not addictive.
Industry documents reveal that ARISE is primarily focused on advocating on behalf of the tobacco industry, and uses the support of other industries such as soft-drink manufacturers as a front for its real purpose.
For example, in fiscal 1993—1994, American and European cigarette manufacturers contributed 99.35% of its operating budget. For 1994—1995, a memo suggests funding in the amount of $200,000 each for Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, and Rothman's Europe.
The tobacco industry's heavy financial support of this group also makes the objectivity of their research questionable. For example, a member of ARISE, Dale Atrens, testified in a smoking case on behalf of British American Tobacco's Australian subsidiary, WD&HO Wills, that research did not persuade him that smoking causes cancer. During cross-examination, however, he admitted that not only had he not read all the research he relied on, but that he didn't know that many of the studies he quoted had a notation on them stating: "Funded by Philip Morris."
Again, this would be unacceptable under the two factors of Daubert I that require scientific testimony to be based on a theory or technique that has been peer reviewed and, in the case of a particular technique, that it have a known error rate and standards controlling its operation. Further, this contravenes Daubert II 's requirement that testimony not be "prepared in anticipation of litigation" or show "an evident bias towards a particular conclusion in a scientist's testimony.
It should be stressed that not all those who gave papers, or were participants in ARISE conferences were paid scientific servants of the tobacco industry. However a central group of them [The advisory group, or ARISE Associates] mostly had long and well-funded associations with the industry or individual companies.
Some key documents
• The tobacco industry funded 99.5% of the ARISE costs. It was controlled by Rothmans, and it used food and other industries to provide itself with a fascade of scientific integrity.
[See [Friedma] ]
1991: ARISE Venice Conference "Pleasure: The Politics and the Reality". Proceedings published in Feb 1994 by John Wiley.
1989: ARISE Florence Conference "Addiction Controversies." Proceedings publihed in 1991 by Harwood Academic Press.
1993 Aug: - Sep: Supposedly ARISE commissioned Market & Opinion Research International (MORI) to conduct a telephone poll into European attitudes to 'the typical pleasures of everyday life.' A claimed 1,509 adults were surveyed across the UK, France, Germany, Spain and Italy. By an amazing coincidence, the study found that tobacco was high on the list of these pleasures, despite other surveys showing that 95% of smokers wished they could give it up:
- 74% of Europeans drink coffee, 59% drink alcohol, 56% eat chocolate, 54% drink tea and 33% smoke, suggesting that "products of enjoyment" still have a large role to play in people's lives.
- Of the products examined, coffee is most frequently cited (49%) as a means of relaxing or coping with stress. For the same reason, 40% drink tea, 36% eat chocolate, 28% smoke and 20% drink alcohol.
- It seems the relaxing effects of such products are an important factor for those who indulge. Two-thirds of tea/coffee drinkers view it as a method of coping with stress or unwinding. The same is true of three-fifths of chocolate eaters and four-fifths of smokers.
• See also Faith Popcorn and the tobacco industry's "Pleasure Revenge project"
1993 /E: Australian psychologist, Robert L McBride manages to combine ARISE functions with the economic Public Choice arguments in "The Blis Point: Implications for Product Choice".
• Stuff on Warburton's book and rise of ARISE 
• Program drafted by BAT 
• PM in Australia commissioned Peat Marwick to check Norman Report into Quit campaign. They said they had forgotten to take into account the 'pleasure' component of smoking. (how does that figure when the social cost argument doesn't take into account the loss of companionship!!!) 'A question of balance' a review of 'a considerable success': an economic evaluation of the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation 870000 - 920000
• See note on the Positive Aspects of Smoking [513049818/9819]
• Scientific meeting at PR company 
1964: Sur Gen report in 1964 said it had benefits in mental health - contentment \
- but majority who smoked wished they could stop.
1988: Conference in Florence - published 'Addiction Controversies' (Best seller)
1989: First International ARISE conference
1990 Mar 29: The inaugural meeting of ARISE. Executive Committee meeting of ARISE in Amsterdam, Present were:
- David Warbburton Convenor)
- Alan K Armitage
- Jan ER Frijters
- Ian Hindmarch
- John Wahren
with appoloties from
[This project was backgrounded in] "a meeting in Florence on "Comparative Substance Abuse" which had considered the effects of a number of substances ranging from heroin to nicotine.
- Karl Bettig
- John W Gorrod
[The name ARISE was chosen which] epitomises our feeling that there should be some resurgence against the Calvinistic attack on people obtaining pleasure from substances and on their freedom of choice to do so.
Then, after telling us that their motivations were un-scientific, they say
The Association should be apolitical as a group and act as independent scientists [except when they] would have the expertise to review scientific statements and make constructive statements on legislative proposals. They plan three types of meetings:
[Attached was the tobacco industry's calendar of future conferences.]
[and]"Financial support for future meetings would be sought from those industries who might have an interst in a particular meeting."
- Those of the small Executive Committee
- workshops of 20 to 30 people
- Symposia held in conjunction with international conferences
1990 July: The list of speakers July 1990 was created by David Warburton and sent to BAT [300561940/1944]
1991 Oct 17-20: Second ARISE workshop. The Preface to the Health Promotion Research Trust, has a handwritten file note saying "Warburton" — which means it is to be filed under his name.
It includes details of a "Comparative Substances Use Workshop II, Venice" organised by David Warburton in association with ARISE.
- Dr Michael Bozarth, State University of New York
- Dr Steve Van Toller, University of Warwick
- Dr Gary Beauchamp, Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia
- Prof Gerd Kobal, Germany [no university given — actually works for Philip Morris USA.]
- Dr Verner Knott, Alcohol & drug Dependence Unit, Ottawa
- Prof Ian Hindmarch, Robens Institute, Surrey
- Dr Sherwin Feinhandler, Social Systems Analyst, Massachusetts
- Dr Geoff Lowe, Hull University
- Dr John Luik, Brock University, Ontario
- Dr Petr Skrabenek, University of Dublin [James McCormick's associate]
- Dr Digby Anderson, Social Affairs Unit, London
Prof Warburton held a successful press conference in Venice with journalists from national press and local TV, and an article is also to be submitted to the journal New Scientist. Dr James Le Fanu, a participant at the
workshop, is a medical writer for the Daily Telegraph and is likely to discuss the
issues raised in his column.
1992: Frijters, JER Dutch consultant to PM 
1992 Oct: Wahren, J Swedish consultant to PM on Nicotine and member of ARISE
Also Warburton 
1993: Third International ARISE conference. This was the year it undertook the MORI lifestyle research looking at European's attitudes to the typical pleasures of life.
1993 Sept: Media report on Warburton in UK [2048393764/3765]
1993 Sept: Conference in Brussels " -
1993 Nov: Media report on Warburton's radio interviews "Naughty but Nice" [2048393780/3781]
1994: ARISE Agency and company contacts
1994: Associates for Research In the Science of Enjoyment /Social Enjoyment/ Substance Enjoyment
Arise supporters p9 Cocal Cola, PM, Guinness, Kraft, European Duty Free Confed, Millers, rothmans, Eurotoques, British Amercian, RJR, Nestle ASSOCIATES FOR RESEARCH INTO THE SCIENCE OF ENJOYMENT
1994: Best slide show See rationalle p49 p25 [2022998523/8585]
p52 use Poll as media device (poll, book, conference)
p54 Talks of small management committee of key ARISE members, main supporters (More than just Warburton). People must have known about Coca Cola, etc support - but perhaps not of PM/RJR/BAT
....???...Expand 'politically corrupt science' concept.
1994: Establishment and funding from Coca Cola, Millers, PM, JRJ, Coffee, European Duty-Free, etc ASSOCIATES FOR RESEARCH INTO THE SCIENCE OF ENJOYMENT [2045655007/5030]
1994: Philip Morris Corporate Affairs [WRA budget/Communications plan] — Proposed Budget papers show that they supported ARISE The budget has provisions for:
Develop and Promote a Test (market specific) on Social Acceptability
Objective: to develop a social science forum to position and promote the message of the acceptability of smoking and other "simple pleasures" including coffee, tea, chocolate and alcohol building on the ARISE concept (Europe)
- message testing - $ 50,000
- communications planning and execution - $250,000
- speakers' fees/expenses - $ 50,000
- VNRs/satellite media tour - $ 50,000 [Video News Releases]
- event support - $25,000
- public opinion survey - $ 75,000
Total : $500,000
1994 Jan: Listed by WRA in budget
Social Acceptability/ARISE $250,000
1994 Feb: 9: Journal of AROS - Book launch J [2025496435/6436]
1994 Feb: draft Press Release carried Substance Enjoyment. [2025496433/6434]
1994 Feb:: Rothmans changes the name from 'Associates for Research in Substance Enjoyment" to Science of Enjoyment. Warburton agrees ARISE [2025496430/6431] International group of scientists - tied to stress and Type A
1994 Mar: 1991 Conference in Venice Published "Pleasure: The Politics and the Reality"
1994 June 12: Helene Lyberopoulos in Brussels to David Bushong
ARISE 940000 - 950000 ACTIVITIES AND FUNDING
Bates Number: [2024208096/8099] Key Document
1994 Aug: ARISE: Stress at the workplace opinion poll
Bates Number: [2024208076/8077]
1994 Aug: Fishburn Hedges Overseas Agency Brief
1994 Aug: Fishburn Hedges brief to other PR companies — yet no mention of tobacco.
ARISE is an apolitical, worldwide assoc of eminent scientists and academics which meets every two years to discuss the ways in which "products of enjoyment" such as chocolate, tobacco, drinks containing caffeine and alcohol contribute to the quality of life ... To date it has operated as an informal network of like-minded colleagues. Previously from Warb. own office on a part-time basis.
Originally to challenge SGs conclusion that tobacco is addictive.
Organisation of pleasure researchers, funded by tobacco
run by Prof David Warburton
1994 Sep 5: (or 9 May) Handnotes - Latin America, Asia, Australia
1994 Oct: /E, ARISE's major international research project will examine stress, relaxation and pleasure in the office environment.
1994 Nov 13: An ARISE/ Harris Research survey, polling "the views of office workers on stress, relaxation and pleasure, both in and out of the office. The research has been conducted in 16 countries across Europe, North America, Asia and Australasia .
The survey of 5000 workers is one of the largest ever of its kind . The survey
was carried out between August and September this year and involved 10
minute telephone interviews conducted at people's homes .
The respondents were recruited by random digit dialling and loose quotas
were imposed on sex and age In order to build up a representative profile of
the working population and gain a big enough sample of younger age
The survey was carried out in the United States, Canada, Australia. New
Zealand, Hong Kong, United Kingdom, France. Germany. Switzerland,
Netherlands, Belgium. Luxembourg, Greece. Italy, Spain and Denmark .
Q. What Is meant by the 'Pleasure Revenge' ?
A. Throughout the world, there are more and more reports about people fed up about being told what to do by so-called experts. Individuals are starting to put things into perspective, taking some of the 'health scares' reported in the media with the pinch of salt they deserve. People are discovering the pleasures of a cup of coffee, a glass of wine or beer, a cigarette or a few pieces of chocolate without guilt.
1995 Early: Published "Pleasure and the Quality of Life'
1995 Apr: ARISE conference in Amsterdam
1995 April: Amsterdam: (was Boston Uni/Europe) (50-75) Stress in the workplace. Harris Research.
1995 April 23 - 26: ARISE Workshop in Amsterdam introduced by Dr Van der Heijden, Director of the WHO in Bilhoven,
[WHO's Netherland's director, Van der Heijden appears to have been very easily sucked in by these lobbyists.]
Conference Conclusion: ARISE's recommendation is that people should live a life of moderate hedonism, so that they can live to the full the only life they are ever likely to have.
- David Warburton [tobacco tout] — survey of 16 developed countries The survey was carried out in New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong, Greece, Italy, Spain, France, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Denmark, United Kingdom, United States and Canada. It was designed to discover the problems in the office workplace. The main finding was the common pattern that work was the major stressor (50%), worldwide.Nearly 8 out of 10 people who were stressed in the workplace found work was the major stressor in their lives.
- David Warburton and Judy Sulter from Competitive Edge, Peachtree City, Georgia — they have identified some contributing factors. to stress. Job disastisfaction is a predictor of ill health and absenteeism.
"From research in the University of Reading's own laboratory, scientific evidence showed that a cup of coffee, a glass of wine, a cigarette, a few pieces of chocolate — these sort of little pleasures — calm people and make them feel better. Thus, these little pleasures can be an antidote to the stressors of life and help maintain an overall harmonious lifestyle."
- Prof Marianne Frankenhaeuser, Uni of Stockholm. — Problems with hormones and stress. — "Relaxing & Unwinding & Its Hormonal Correlates"
- Prof Hera Tsimara-Papastamatiou, Uni of Athens, — stressors and the progress of disease — "Stressors and Cancer"
- Prof, Klaus Jung, Uni of Mainz — the role of physical activity [Missing from second record]
- Dr Jan Snel, Uni of Amsterdam — caffeine — "Coffee & Information Processing"
- Prof Alberto Oliverio, Nat Resarch Center, Italy [Missing from one record] "Hormones & Immune Response"
- Dr Michael Bozarty, State Uni of New York [tobacco tout] [Missing from one record] "Brain Mechanisms of Pleasure Against Stressors"
- Prof Andy Smith, Uni of Bristol — food and caffeine's effect on memory — "Coffee & Sweets & Shift Work"
- Prof Ian Hindmarch, Uni of Surrey [tobacco tout]— nicotine, caffeine and chocolate improve congnitive and psychomotor performance. "Pleasure, Products & Everyday Skills."
- Dr Geoff Lowe, Uni of Hull [?]— alcohol and creativity in artists "Pleasure, Products & Creativity".
- Prof Chris Gratton and Simon Holliday, Sheffield Hallam Uni — pleasure choices [Missing from Second record]
- Prof Michael Robbins, Uni of Missouri-Columbia [Omitted from main record] — "Rituals of Pleasure in Everyday Life"
- Prof Christie Davies, Uni of Reading, sociologist — prohibitions lead to criminal behavior.— "Moralistic Approaches to Pleasure"
- Prof Keith Botsford, Prof of Journalism and History, Boston Uni [tobacco tout] — "The New Puritanism".
- Dr Digby Anderson, Director of the Social Affairs Unit in London [tobacco tout] — political sociologist spoke on "The Nanny State Against Living"
- Dr Faith Fitzgerald, Uni of California, Medical School of Davis
— right to choose to die from either Altzheimers or CHD from smoking.
- Prof James McCormick, Trinity College Dublin [tobacco tout] — questioned the value of preventative medicine. — "Sick To Death of the Health Gurus"
- Prof Jean-Francois Malberby, Sherbrooke Uni, Canada [Omitted from one record] "Autonomy & Prevention"
- Dr Bruce Charlton, Uni of Newcastle [Omitted from one record] "Antidotes to Health Scares."[?]
- Dr John Luik, Niagra Institute [tobacco tout]— Does health have a moral basis? — "The Important Choices in Life."
- Prof Claude Javeau, Uni Libre de Bruxelle [tobacco tout] — Spoke on state intrusions into decision-making about pleasure pose significant dangers to democracy "The Choice of the Pleasures of Life and The Defence of Democracy"
1996: Matt Winokur had a $2.7 million budget for ETS fight-back activites. It includes funding of TASSC, AEI, IDU and ARISE. The AEI was to promote publications on 'sound science' (generated by TASSC & ARISE). Also
- The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition — WRA contribution to support international applications of the Coalition in support of GEPs (may not be to a 501 (c) 3)
- American Enterprise Institute to promote publications on sound science
- International Democrat Union to support regulatory reform and sound science policies in U.S. and international political organizations (see Swidler & Berlin, below)
- ARISE (Associates for Research In the Science of Enjoyment) [Note: $50,000 is one-third the '95 commitment and represents a cutback in WRA support as the benefit of ARISE will continue to be for the EU markets. ]
- Eurocenter — Spring O'Brien agency to promote the results of the Corning-Hazleton air quality studies worldwide.
- Swidler & Berlin support for GEP in US and international
political organizations; utilizes direct contribution to Int'l Democr[atic] Union
1996: E/ A list of ARISE Associates shows that this was a tobacco-industry-friendly advisory group. Almost every name on the list had strong tobacco industry connections [quite unlike the lists of conference participants, who were generally independent.]
- David M Warburton, University of Reading, UK
- Digby Anderson, Social Affairs Unit, London UK
- Gary Beauchamp, Monell Chemical Senses Institute, Philadelphia
- Keith Botsford, Boston University (editor of Bostonian)
- Michael Bozarth, State Uni of New York, Buffalo
- Christie Davies, University of Reading, UK
- Jean Pierre Dauwalder, Uni of Lausanne, Switzerland
- Timothy ('Tim') Evans, Consultant with Adam Smith Institute, London
- Sherwin J Feinhandler, Harvard University and Social Survey [sic. Actually Social Systems Analysts, Inc]
- Ian Hindmarch, University of Surrey, UK
- Gerd Kobal, University of Erlangen, FDR (Germany)
- John C Luik, Niagra Institute (ex 'Professor of Ethics, Brock University)
- Geoffrey Lowe, Hull University.
- James McCormick, Trinity College, Dublin
- Frank McKenna, University of Reading
- Robert L McBride Australian Psychologist
- Petra Neter, Uni of Giessen, FDR Germany
- Peter Rogers, Institute of Food Science, Reading UK
- Frank van DunUniversities of Ghent, Belgium & Limburg
- Steve Van Toller University of Warwick, UK
1996 Aug 17: Weekend Australian [owned by Rupert Murdoch] reported:
Last month the National Heart Foundation sponsored an Australian speaking tour by [anti-smoking crusader Prof Stanford] Glantz — the industry's number one enemy. But he arrived to discover somebody had tasted his porridge and sat in his chair. A Canadian philosopher, Dr John Luik, had criss-crossed the country before him describing the campaign against passive smoking as a "dangerous mix of science and propaganda". His visit was hosted by the Institute for Public Affairs which ran an article in its latest journal lashing the moralistic party-poopers who want smoke banned from public places.
The article quotes heavily from an Association for Research into the Science of Enjoyment [ARISE] which has found that smoking and coffee not only help to relieve workplace stress, which in turn strengthens our immunity to diseases such as cancer, but the nicotine actually improves our productivity.
It says scientific evidence presented at the association's last meeting in Brussels "showed that a cup of coffee, a glass of wine, a cigarette. and a few pieces of chocolate made people calmer, more relaxed and generally happier".
1996 Nov 1-3: The Russell Sage Foundation funded the ARISE "Enjoyment and Suffering Conference" at Princeton University [ARISE was a tobacco industry front scientific organization] and also funded the publication of two books. The summary of the conference reported:
A finding which was repeated throughout the conference was that at the lowest income levels, rises in income have a major effect on well-being, whereas at higher income levels further rises in income have little effect. [Gee! Who'd have thought that?]
[Duh! Consumption taxes are universally regarded as regressive. They hit those on lower incomes proportionally harder. This is about the most stupid economic statement that anyone could make.]
With this economic model it was suggested that well-being could be most easily improved through the removal of income tax and its replacement with a consumption tax. The clear bottom line was "It's the economy, stupid!".
The names associated with the organization of this conference were:
- David Warburton, University of Reading and Coordinator of ARISE for the tobacco industry.
- Neil Sherwood, Uni of Reading wrote the report. [He worked with Warburton and dealt directly with RJ Reynolds]
A couple of obvious tobacco lackies gave papers at this conference, and there's a full list of participants from Europe and North America.
1996 Dec 20:: Philip Morris's Worldwide Regulatory Affairs and Corporate Affairs divisions are coordinating their strategies.
Continue support of Associates for Research Into the Science of Enjoyment (ARISE).
- Scientific Roundtable discussions with media are being held in Germany, Italy, Spain, Greece, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, the UK and France.
- Involve 11 new scientists from Germany, Italy, Spain, Greece who have become ARISE Associates, bringing the European total to 30; evaluate 17 additional candidates.
- Publicize the "Value of Pleasures" survey and host conference around the theme.
- Recruit additional corporate sponsors.
1996 Dec 20:: Philip Morris's Worldwide Regulatory Affairs and Corporate Affairs divisions are coordinating their strategies. This involves Continued support. Scientific roundtables in Germany, Italy, Spain, Greece, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, the UK and France
Involve 11 new scientists from Germany, Italy, Spain, Greece who have become ARISE associates - Europe total of 30. Evaluate additional 17 candidates
1997 Apr 29: An executive of RJ Reynolds [possibly JH Robinson, Senior Staff Scientist] has sent a joint letter to Dr Faith Fitzgerald, Prof of Medicine at the University of California, School of Medicine, Sacramento and to David Warburton at University of Reading in the UK. It is addressed jointly to them (suggesting they were close associates, or perhaps a couple):
Dear Dr. Fitzgerald and Professor Warburton: [Last page of letter is missing]
It was great to have the opportunity to see you both in Rome and chat, even if it was only for a few minutes. I thoroughly enjoyed the ARISE meeting as well as seeing so many old friends.
I was delighted that you both expressed an interest in the 51st Annual TCRC (Tobacco Chemists Research Conference) meeting to be held here in Winston- Salem. As we discussed, my original idea was to ask one of you to attend and present at the opening symposium, entitled 'Human Smoking Behavior'.
After discussing this with a couple of people here, I think we have a wonderful opportunity to not only cover the topic of pleasure in smoking, but also to bring some of the ARISE work directly to an established scientific research meeting.
2000 Sep 12: Dale Atrens was exposed in a Sydney Morning Herald article "Tobacco's Secret Society."
Atrens, a psychologist working from a grubby shoebox above Sydney University's manicured quadrangle, celebrates his iconoclasm. He is heretical enough to argue that diets kill people. He's also entertaining enough to define a drug as "any substance which would, injected into an albino rat, produce a scientific paper".
[Who says they didn't know? Complete stupidity is not really an adequate defence for a publicly funded academic.]
Atrens has found like minds in a group called ARISE Associates for Research Into the Science of Enjoyment. It's a group which calls itself, on its Web site, "an international and apolitical group of independent scientists and academics.
And there's [also] his work for the tobacco industry. In 1998 Atrens prepared an opinion, at a cost of "about $10,000" , for WD&HO Wills. He testified as an expert witness for Wills in a smoking lawsuit and, in answer to the question: "Does [research] persuade you that smoking probably causes cancer?" he simply said: "No"
Atrens admitted under cross-examination that he had not read all the references he used in preparing his opinion, and was not aware that a large number of the studies he quoted bore a notation: "Funded by Philip Morris." Reminded of this, Atrens says he was brought in only'for my knowledge of addiction". He does not believe nicotine is addictive.
ARISE says that by "creating a better understanding of the benefits of pleasure, it hopes to allow people to make informed choices and to enjoy themselves without excess worry or guilt". Atrens is a long-term member of ARISE, and quotes its research approvingly in his book.
What the Web site doesn't mention, and what neither Atrens nor its other Australian members knew, is that ARISE was started by the tobacco industry.
Neither Atrens nor other Australian ARISE members Robert McBride and Philip Norrie knew the organisation was started by the tobacco industry.
[Which has to be the understatement of the century.]
McBride, a psychologist, doesn't see that as a problem, but Norrie does. As well as being a northern beaches GP, Norrie is a winegrower and president of the Australian Medical Friends of Wine Society.
He's received a bit of ARISE's largesse; he was flown to Rome and put up in top-class accommodation for a week in 1997 to present a paper on the history of wine and medicine. "I'm not rapt in the cigarette funding. I'm a doctor and I see the end results of that stuff," he says. "But the other people they're psychologists and pharmacologists and I guess they can justify it. Theyre Ivy League people, too, professors at Harvard and Yale and places like that.
"I asked David Warburton about it, and his view was that it's better to do something with dirty money than nothing with clean money. He's a lovely guy, but he's a pragmatist. If someone offers him money he'll take it."
ARISE's main public activity since its inception seems to be conferences in places such as Florence, Venice, Rome and, last October, Kyoto.[Who did they think paid for the travel and accomodation costs?]
The initial aim, according to documents released from Philip Morris Australia's corporate library, was to argue that nicotine differed from heroin and cocaine because nicotine enhances performance, while the others impair it.
Two years later the ARISE backers decided to align themselves with food and drink manufacturers, and position smoking as a simple pleasure, like food and drink. Other stated alms include "expanding [the] network of interested scientists and academics" , "expanding [the] 'politically corrupt science' concept" and "positioning tobacco as one of the products associated with pleasure".
ARISE has published conference proceedings in books with titles such as Pleasure, The Politics and The Reality and Pleasure and Quality of Life. In 1994, ARISE also commissioned a British public relations firm to co-ordinate its international campaign to position smoking as a guilty pleasure. From a global budget of US$773,750, Australia was handed US$20,000 for public relations and US$10,000 to participate in an international opinion poll. ARISE's London-based secretary, Ginny Borland, declined to answer questions on its present public relations activities in Australia.
The ARISE documents said that the main financial contributors in 1994 were tobacco companies Philip Morris, Rothmans, British American Tobacco, RJ Reynolds, as well as Coca-Cola, Guinness, Kraft, Miller, Nestle, the Coffee Science Information Centre, the European Duty Free Confederation and the European Advertising Agencies Association.
Some of those companies question this.
- Coca-Cola South Pacific's direetor of external affairs, Geoff Walsh, says he can find nobody in Coca-Cola internationally who has had any contact with ARISE.
- Nestle Australia's general manager corporate affairs, Peter Kelly, says the British office denies ever sponsoring ARISE. Nestle executives had attended a seminar with Warburton, and there had been correspondence, but there had been "no involvement for several years" , he says.
- According to Nerida White, corporate communications manager of Philip Morris (Australia), the company internationally sponsored ARISE's Kyoto conference last year at a cost of US$70,000. She believes Philip Morris has not supported ARISE this year.
- Brendan Brady, British American Tobacco's Australasian corporate affairs manager, said he could not find out whether or not the London office still supported ARISE.
- ARISE's Borland would not provide a list of current sponsors.
2006 Feb 7: George Monbiot in The Guardian
[subtitled] Exposed: the secret corporate funding behind health research.
Academics and the media have failed dismally to ask the crucial question of scientists claims: "who is paying you?"
Three weeks ago while looking for something else I came across one of the most extraordinary documents I have ever read. It relates to an organisation called ARISE (Associates for Research into the Science of Enjoyment). Though largely forgotten today in the 1990s it was one of the world's most influential public-health groups. First I should explain what it claimed to stand for:
ARISE, founded in 1988, seems to have been active until 2004. It described itself as "a worldwide association of eminent scientists who act as independent commentators." Its purpose these eminent scientists said was to show how everyday pleasures, such as eating chocolate, smoking, drinking tea, coffee and alcohol contribute to the quality of life."
It maintained that there were good reasons for dropping our inhibitions and indulging ourselves. Scientific studies show that enjoying the simple pleasures in life without feeling guilty can reduce stress and increase resistance to disease. Conversely guilt can increase stress and undermine the immune system . This can lead to for instance forgetfulness eating disorders heart problems or brain damage. The health police, as ARISE sometimes called them, could be causing more harm than good.
ARISE received an astonishing amount of coverage. Between September 1993 and March 1994 for example it generated 195 newspaper articles and radio and television interviews in places such as the Wall Street Journal, the International Herald Tribune, the Independent, the Evening Standard, El Pa’s La Repubblica Rai, and the BBC. Much of this coverage resulted from a Mori poll called Naughty but Nice that ARISE claimed to have commissioned into the guilty pleasures people enjoyed most. Here is a typical example (this one from Reuters):
Puritanical health workers who dictate whether people should smoke or drink alcohol and coffee are trying to ruin the quality of life a group of academics said . Many of us hold the view that it is a person's right to enjoy these pleasures .. said Professor David Warburton a professor of pharmacology at Reading University in England . Much of health promotion is based on misinformation It is politically driven'. The Today programme gave Warburton an uncontested interview in its prime spot at 8.20am. He extolled the calming properties of cigarettes and poured scorn on public-health messages. ARISE has also featured eight times in the Guardian. Coverage like this continued until October 2004 when the Times repeated ARISE's claim that we should stop worrying about often ill-founded health scares and listen to our bodies, which naturally seek to protect themselves from disease by doing the things we enjoy. In hundreds of articles and transcripts covering its claims I have found just one instance of a journalist, Madeleine Bunting in the Guardian, questioning either ARISE's science or the motivation of the scientists.
Warburton who claimed to run the group was head of psychopharmacology at the University of Reading. While ARISE was active he published at least a dozen articles on nicotine in the academic press. In 1989 in the Psychologist he mocked the US surgeon general's finding that nicotine is addictive. Most of his articles were published in the journal Psychopharmacology of which he was a senior editor. They maintained that nicotine improved both attention and memory. I have read seven of these papers. On none of them could I find a declaration of financial interests except for two grants from the Wellcome Trust.
In 1998 as part of a settlement of a class action against the tobacco companies in the US the firms were obliged to place their internal documents in a public archive Among them is the one I came across last month It is a memo from an executive in the corporate services department of Philip Morris the world's largest tobacco company to one of her colleagues The title is Arise 1994-95 Activities and Funding" I had a meeting, she began with Charles Hay and Jacqui Smithson Rothmans to agree on the 1994-1995 activity plan for Arise and to discuss the funding needed Enclosed is a copy of our presentation.
This showed that in the previous financial year Arise had received 373,400: 2,000 from Coca-Cola 900 from other firms and the rest over 99 from Philip Morris British American Tobacco RJ Reynolds and Rothmans In 1994-95 its budget would be 773,750 Rothmans and RJ Reynolds had each committed to provide 200,000 and BAT has also shown interest She suggested that Philip Morris put up 300,000 Then the memo becomes even more interesting.
The previous 'Naughty but Nice' Mori poll proved to be very effective in getting wide media coverage The exercise will be repeated this year on the theme of Stress in the Workplace . A draft questionnaire was already submitted to [Tony Andrade Philip Morris's senior lawyer] and [Matt Winokur its director of regulatory affairs] for comments. We decided to hold Arise's next conference in Europe it continued because of positive European media coverage" Philip Morris had appointed a London PR agency to run the media operation set up Arise's secretariat and help to recruit new members Arise's major spending authorisation and approval would be handled by an informal Budget Committee involving PM Rothmans and possibly RJR and BAT."
The memo suggests Arise was run not by eminent scientists but by eminent tobacco companies This impression is reinforced by another document in the tobacco archive which explains how the group began In 1988 the US Surgeon General said: Nicotine was as addictive as heroin or cocaine. The industry responded A group of academics was identified and called together to: review the science of substance abuse separate nicotine from these substances."
I sent a list of questions to Warburton but he told me that he did not have time to answer them Reading University replied that it knew Warburton's work had been sponsored by the tobacco companies Indeed the university itself had received over 300,000 from Arise but from the university's standpoint, the source of funding for Arise has always been vague" It revealed that Professor Warburton and the University of Reading were in receipt of BAT research funding between 1995 and 2003" But at no time had it questioned this funding or sought to oblige Warburton to declare his interests in academic papers Astonishingly it suggested that this would amount to censorship and restricting academic freedom.
The journal Psychopharmacology told me it was unaware Warburton had been taking money from tobacco firms It is an author's responsibility to disclose sources of funding and widely understood that journals themselves do not expect to police this declaration. After a long career untroubled by questions about his interests or professional ethics Warburton retired in 2003 He still lectures at Reading as an emeritus professor
How much more science is being published in academic journals with undeclared interests like these? How many more media campaigns against overregulation the compensation culture or unfounded public fears have been secretly funded and steered by corporations? How many more undeclared recipients of corporate money have been appearing on the Today programme providing free public relations for their sponsors? This case suggests that academia and the media have failed dismally to exercise sufficient scepticism Surely there is one obvious question with which every journal and every journalist should begin Who's funding you?
2024208080/8085: Exploring Trust.
1993: Paper — Tim Evans, Adam Smith Institute "Bureaucracy against life in the politicisation of personal choice."
1993: Papers — JCH Davies, Uni of Reading, "Substances and Sociability" [This is Christie Davies who also worked through FOREST]
1993: Papers — James McCormick, Trinity College Dublin, "Health scares are bad for your health." [He wa the partner/co-author of tobacco material with Petr Skrabanek]
1993: Papers — K Botsford, Bostonia magazine "Pleasure and Living"
1993: Papers — G Lowe, University of Hull "Pleasure Relaxing and Unwinding"
1993 Nov 2: Ruth Dempsey sends a note to Wolf Reininghaus who was temporily looking after ARISE (he is with INBIFO) She attaches:
A letter from David Warburton following up from the ARISE meeting in Brussels. Richard suggested that I pass this on to you. I welcome any suggestions or comments from this.
Kind regards, Ruth.
1994 May: Jan Goodheart of Philip Morris's handnotes shows that they were considering the use of ARISE in Latin America, Asia and Australia. At this time they had had three ARISE conferences: Venice, Florence, and Brussels, and the organization had enlisted support also from Coca Cola and Nestle.
PR Efforts (PM Involvement)It also had some cash figures on the side headed "Rothmans" and showing $200,000 for both 1994 and 1995.
- Opinion Poll of 1509 [the MORI poll] in 5 countries incl. Spain
- lifestyle factors/stress reducing
- typical pleasures 31% [smokers]
- "how do you cope with stress 36% [smoking]
- further explore quality of life objectives
- xxxx? pressure or threat to individual freedom
- expand politically corrupts science concept
- network of scientists/academics
- communications network.
"Living is More than Surviving: The Contribution to Everyday Life."